12 Feb
2012

“Părintele Justin: Avem nevoie să ni se facă dor de neam, dor de Dumnezeu “

 

“Până nu vom avea un conducător cu frica lui Dumnezeu care să ţină drept predania Bisericii, nu vom putea ieşi din criza actuală.”

 


 

Părinte, vă rugăm să ne spuneţi cum vedeţi protestele care au loc în Bucureşti. Ce alternativă politică consideraţi viabilă în această situaţie? Au românii ce să aleagă?

Din păcate nu avem din ce alege. Partidele care ni se prezintă astăzi sunt agăţate politic ori de Răsărit, ori de Occident, unde este acelaşi socialism şi într-o parte şi întralta. Şi nouă, celor din închisorile comuniste, ne-a luat multă vreme să ne dumirim că în Occident era acelaşi socialism ca şi în Răsărit, decât îmbrăcat în altă uniformă.
Diferenţa dintre generaţia noastră şi această generaţie este că pe când aceşti oameni strigă în stradă pentru o bucată de pâine, pentru că le-a ajuns cuţitul la os într-adevăr, noi strigam pentru apărarea valorilor morale ale acestui neam. Noi aveam respect faţă de neam, pe care conductorii de azi l-au golit de toată bogăţia morală şi fizică. Credeţi că era puţin curaj să arunci tablourile lui Gheorghiu-Dej şi ale Anei Pauker sub bancă? Sau să calci pe tabloul lui Stalin? Românul a protestat mai eroic într-un stat comunist, în care teroarea era arma de bază a puterii, decât într-un stat democratic în care eşti liber să protestezi oricând. Dar acum, sărmanul, a ajuns la capătul puterilor, la capătul răbdării, pentru că nu mai are ce pune pe masă copiilor şi nu își mai poate trăi firesc existența în societate. Mă uit la bătrânii aceştia pensionari şi îi compătimesc cum strigă şi ei, sărmanii, în frig de nu mai au nici glas, fără niciun rost, bineînţeles. Pentru că în conjunctura actuală nu avem niciun partid care să le poată oferi mai mult. Atât guvernanţii cât şi poporul l-au scos pe Dumnezeu din calcul, au uitat să Îi mulţumească lui Dumnezeu şi Dumnezeu ne-a părăsit pentru necredinţa noastră. Românul nostru e bun de gălăgie şi atât. Dar când e vorba să baţi din picior la el, nu mai mişcă un pas, atât durează curajul românului de azi. Pentru că totul este o manevră politică şi nu răzbeşti mai departe. E nevoie de o strategie, de oameni capabili care să îşi asume un rol eroic, un sacrificiu. Au atâta dibăcie în a manevra şi ameţi turma, încât şi norii ţi-i adună să plouă sau să ningă, pentru a împrăştia mulţimile. Metodele securistice de azi sunt mult mai avansate şi nu răzbeşti tu aşa uşor să schimbi un sistem politic. Realitatea este că românul nostru pleacă la război, dar nu are nici oameni, nu are nici arme, şi mai presus de toate nu are un lider, omul care să dirijeze.

Dar tânărul acesta locotenent, Alexandru Gheorghe, care a protestat eroic alături de mulţimile din Piaţa Universităţii, amintind atât de onoarea şi dragostea de neam cât şi de valoarea de creștin, nu credeţi că a mişcat ceva în conştiinţele românilor?

Tânărul acesta este un simbol al tineretului şi tinerii de azi ar trebui să ia aminte la curajul lui. Am întrezărit ceva din duhul tinerilor din perioada mea, care şi-au sacrificat viaţa pentru a elibera neamul de sub comunism. Pentru mine acest tânăr reprezintă graiul neamului care nu s-a stins şi nu se va stinge atâta timp cât vom avea oameni de sacrificiu şi de jertfă precum acest tânăr locotenent. Eu mă rog pentru el să aibă puterea mărturisirii până la capăt, fără să se compromită, şi asemenea lui să îi urmeze cât mai mulţi români care nu au dat uitării jertfele martirilor şi voievozilor acestui pământ.


A ieşit vreun preot să susțină aceşti oameni necăjiţi?
Uite mireanul cum te roagă să ieşi în mijlocul lor, aşa cum a cerut acest tânăr locotenent. A ieşit vreo barbă deasă în faţa mulţimii? Nu! Eventual a ieşit în parlament în faţa stăpânirii, unde unul vorbeşte şi ceilalți dorm. Salariu bun şi unii şi alţii, unul cu Doamne miluieşte, celălalt cu prinde peşte. Nu zic să protesteze violent cu scandări, ci să facă un marş al păcii cu rugăciuni pentru popor. Însă e greu, pentru că dacă îţi asumi să spui ceva, trebuie să şi suferi oleacă. Noi predicăm despre eroism, adevăr, dragoste şi dreptate, dar unde este fapta noastră concretizată? Pentru ce mai există amvon dacă nu este folosit când e nevoie? Atunci nu mai ieşim deloc la amvon şi stăm aici şi facem pocăinţa tâlharului. Aşa după cum în parlament este un ton pe care îl dă guvernul, aşa şi omul Bisericii dă tonul din amvon. Şcoala, Biserica şi armata ar trebui tot timpul să fie în mijlocul unui popor – cele trei instituţii care conduc şi sprijină un stat.
Dar dacă ar fi apărut în faţa acestei mulţimi un tânăr preot sau teolog care a terminat acum doctoratul pe la Bruxelles sau pe la Roma – să vină să spună şi el un cuvânt – uite, domnule, eu vin din propria mea convingere, nu vin nici din partea guvernului, nici a Bisericii, vin ca un creştin simplu care îmi pasă de soarta acestui popor şi vreau să mă fac părtaş durerilor lui? Unde sunt intelectualii şi doctoranzii acum? Cu ce contribuie doctorandul acum la renaşterea acestui popor, de pe seama căruia i se dă bursă de studiu? Au călătorit prin toate statele lumii doar ca să vină din America cu o hârtie de titrat? Dar dacă învaţă în şcoala masonică… e normal să nu contribuie cu nimic. Dacă eu nu am legătură cu nicio haită de lupi care conduce naţiunea, nu mă tem de nimic.

Unii protestatari văd o soluţie în venirea monarhiei. Credeţi că este o soluţie?

Nu, nici vorbă. E o altă ramură a masoneriei. Iar ca să ai o monarhie, trebuie să ridici un popor la concepţia aceasta. Apoi, şi regii sunt la fel de manevraţi după cum sunt manevrate şi partidele politice. Cine-i Anglia? Cine-i Franța? Cine-i Germania? Nu toţi sunt Hohenzollern şi neamurile lor? … grecii chiar. Şi să ai un rege măcar ca Ferdinand, dar cu progenituri ca aceştia ce să faci, poţi să mai ai încredere în reprezentanții de azi ai regalităţii?

Dar ce soluţie vedeţi posibilă?

Fără credinţă în Dumnezeu nu putem face nimic. Până nu vom avea un conducător cu frica lui Dumnezeu care să ţină drept predania Bisericii, nu vom putea ieşi din criza actuală. Iar poporul ar trebui să ceară de la Dumnezeu cu rugăciune şi pocăinţă un conducător credincios, drept şi destoinic. Dar nu vezi niciunul care să se detaşeze de interesul lui propriu, el trebuie să ştie doar cât mai poate roade osişorul.


 

Credeţi că poate renaşte în poporul nostru spiritul dacic, vitejia şi demnitatea voievozilor români?

Poate renaşte ceva în neamul nostru numai dacă va mai slăbi şi puterea masonică. Această putere manevrează totul, subjugă şi descompune fiinţa omului şi a neamurilor. Şi faţă de o astfel de putere a întunericului se cere din partea credincioşilor o luptă pe plan duhovnicesc – credinţă, rugăciune şi iar rugăciune ca să poată îmblânzi mânia lui Dumnezeu care vine asupra noastră. Oamenii au uitat să îi mulțumească lui Dumnezeu, şi pentru cele bune, şi pentru cele mai puţin bune. De pildă noi am făcut demersuri de ridicare a unei troițe în locul unde au luptat ostaşii de la 1944, în Cristeştii Moldovei – Moţca, pentru că am fost acolo martor ocular la toate evenimentele de rezistență armată împotriva frontului rusesc. Ei bine, nu s-a putut face. De un an de zile aştept aprobare de la prefectură sau de la minister şi nu s-a primit nicio directivă de a înălţa o cruce martirilor acestei ţări. Şi atunci mă întreb: ce poţi face cu asemenea oameni care dirijează un stat creştin? Decât să fim exploataţi, prostiţi şi înjosiţi. Şi aşa merge poporul acesta de o bucată de vreme încoace: unul zideşte şi trei dărâmă.

Spuneaţi de curând că nu aţi fost de acord cu intrarea în Uniunea Europeană şi în NATO. Credeţi că am putea vieţui ca stat înafara acestor organizaţii internaţionale, care dirijează omenirea?

Îmi menţin această părere. Dacă am avea puţină demnitate am şti cum să trăim independenţi. Şi chiar dacă suntem în Uniunea Europeană, asta nu înseamnă că eu trebuie să execut tot ce mi se cere acolo, asta nu înseamnă că pe mine mă dizolvi ca naţiune şi nu mai am voie să îmi spun punctul de vedere. Dar ştiu demnitarii noştri de azi să susţină drepturile naţiunii noastre? Ei nu ştiu decât să primească osişoare de la stăpâni. Când vom depăşi statutul de slugi? Este România stat independent sau nu? Elveţia cum reușește să se sustragă acestei Uniuni şi să fie totodată o mare capitală a Europei? Noi nu trebuie să facem parte din această Uniune Europeană, ce se vrea o nouă Uniune Sovietică. Aceste uniuni doresc o globalizare a statelor, ce ascund un plan dictatorial, de a se ajunge la banca unică, la moneda unică, pentru a îngrădi cetăţeanul, pentru a centraliza puterea spre instaurarea noii ere.

În cazul în care va izbucni un nou război mondial, credeţi că România va fi afectată?

Sigur că şi noi vom fi implicaţi, pentru că statele acestea mari își protejează întotdeauna teritoriul şi nu deschid un câmp de luptă pe terenul lor. Îl deschid pe la români, pe la bulgari şi alte state mai puţin însemnate în ochii lor. Ei intervin doar când au un interes anume. Să nu credem că ne vrea cineva binele, să ne ocrotească pe noi vreun stat. Păi, cât de greu s-a făcut unitatea aceasta a noastră, a românilor, că neau sfâşiat şi ungurii şi ruşii? Ei nu au niciun interes ca noi să fim independenţi şi puternici. Noi am putea trăi de sine stătători în ţara aceasta binecuvântată de Dumnezeu cu toate bogăţiile; am putea trăi dumnezeieşte. Nu ne trebuie banane, nu ne trebuie portocale, nu ne trebuie ajutorul nimănui. Petrol avem, aur avem, păduri avem, ape şi peşte avem şi atâtea bunătăţi pe care nu ştim să le exploatăm.

Păi tocmai, părinte, noi avem ce exploata, dar tot timpul străinii sunt cei care exploatează la noi în ţară şi nouă ne rămâne doar un procent mult prea mic. Cum e cazul Roșiei Montana. S-a făcut o manipulare grozavă în mass-media, cum că nu se exploatează aurul din Munţii Apuseni şi minerii nu au de lucru, dar nu s-a spus şi cine exploatează, şi cui revin beneficiile de pe urma acestei exploatări, că nu revin statului român, ci tot străinilor care investesc. Oare statul român nu poate dezvolta astfel de exploatări?

Sigur că putem exploata singuri, cum a făcut românul de la începuturi, dar dacă suntem vânduţi străinilor? Trebuie să le dăm lor procentul. Şi nu numai aurul se poate exploata; avem minereuri și mai preţioase în munţii noştri, şi străinii ştiu asta foarte bine: uraniu şi wolfram, care valorează mai mult decât aurul. Eu însumi ştiu, când eram în mina de la Baia Sprie şi exploatam inclusiv wolfram. Avem o ţară cu multe bogăţii miniere, însă trebuie multă precauţie şi când le exploatezi, pentru că ele sunt şi foarte radioactive. Caraliii ne mai puneau câte un bibelou de uraniu prin locurile unde munceam noi, special să ne iradieze. Nu vedeţi că în zonele acestea miniere şi copiii şi muncitorii sunt slăbiţi şi epuizaţi datorită acestui mediu îmbâcsit de otrăvuri miniere în care trăiesc ei? Şi transportul de uraniu se face deschis, nu este o precauţie adecvată, şi aceasta este posibil să o facă special spre a intoxica populaţia, mediul şi animalele. Aceste exploatări se fac cu o tehnică deosebită astfel încât materialele folosite să nu fie radioactive, să nu afecteze sănătatea populaţiei. Toate aceste lucruri au şi ele un scop în cazul în care se doreşte un război pentru distrugerea României, iar intoxicarea este un mijloc foarte lesnicios pentru ei, prin alimentaţia otrăvită, prin aerul otrăvit; nu este altceva decât intenţia diavolească de a secera şi de a reduce numărul omenirii. Acest război pe care îl pregătesc tot ei în favoarea lor, nu are drept scop decât măcinarea şi distrugerea omenirii fără cruţare, şi vieţuirea lor peste cadavrele acestei lumi.
Acesta este un pericol mai important decât cine conduce mâine România. Ei strigă: Jos parlamentul, Jos X sau Y, dar nu cunosc dedesubturile şi problemele cu adevărat vitale…, probleme pe care nu le pune nimeni în discuţie şi nu ai voie să le discuţi. Dar avem de-a face cu nişte trădători de ţară şi stăpâni prea mulţi ca să le mai putem face faţă.

O problemă reală care ameninţă Biserica de câţiva ani încoace este ecumenismul. Sf. Justin Popovici a fost printre primii care a atras atenţia asupra acestui pericol, numindu-l panerezia timpurilor noastre. Cum vedeţi învăţătura Sfântului Justin Popovici într-o perioadă în care ecumenismul este din ce în ce mai activ?

Pentru mine Sf. Justin Popovici este cea mai frumoasă aplicare a dogmei în veacul nostru. Este omul care l-a readus pe Dumnezeu între oameni, într-o civilizaţie întemeiată pe sine, pe un umanism luciferic. Un mare teolog şi dogmatist de valoare, care a incomodat şi incomodează prin modul în care spune tranşant Adevărul. Bineînţeles că în facultăţile de Teologie nu îl veţi găsi studiat. El apare ca un mare duşman al Bisericii şi al Europei, pentru că a combătut papismul şi toate rătăcirile umaniste ale statelor europene, dar în special erezia catolică ce i-a îndepărtat pe oameni de Dumnezeu. El este pe drept un adevărat apostol al naţiunilor europene. A delimitat credinţa Răsăritului de cea a Apusului; Răsăritul care își trăieşte viaţa în pocăinţă şi asceză, prin suferinţe şi necazuri, iar Apusul absorbit de curentul ecumenist şi umanist. Revoluţia franceză constituie apogeul umanismului şi nihilismului – Franța, Germania, Italia, Portugalia sunt părinţii umanismului şi nici până astăzi nu pot suporta Răsăritul ortodox.

Consideraţi că revoluţia franceză este baza sistemului politic defectuos de azi?

Cu siguranţă. Tot modernismul are la bază această concepţie, chipurile, democratică: egalitate, fraternitate, libertate. Ateismul şi comunismul sunt mugurii, odraslele ei. Este cea mai inteligentă şi satanică metodă de a schimba faţa unei civilizaţii, prin iluzia acestei libertăţi false. Nu a fost decât o înșelare, un surogat şi acel stat perfect nici nu a existat şi nici nu va exista vreodată. Este vorba de schimbarea sistemului de gândire al omenirii care aduce în centrul universului omul şi nu pe Dumnezeu, mediul prielnic în care s-a dezvoltat masoneria şi tot răul politic şi social.

Credeți că ecumenismul este unealta masoneriei?

Fără îndoială. Prin relativizarea valorilor, masoneria urmăreşte să te închini unui dumnezeu impersonal, dumnezeul ecumenist. Ecumenismul merge strategic împreună cu globalizarea. Nivelarea tuturor neamurilor, formarea unui guvern şi stat unic concomitent cu ecumenismul ce are drept scop formare unei singure religii care să le unifice pe toate în una – toate duc spre înfăptuirea scopului lor final – înscăunarea noului om, Antihrist. Ecumenismul este un mare fals, ei vorbesc în numele unei iubiri înafara lui Hristos, care te exclude din Adevăr. Dacă ecumeniştii ar iubi cu adevărat lumea nu ar dezmoşteni adevărul de valoarea şi bogăţia spirituală a tradiției Bisericii, a Sfinţilor Părinți. Dezmoştenesc creştinismul de frumuseţea harică. De la ei s-a dus Dumnezeu, rămâne doar egoul lor.

Nu, noi nu avem nevoie de Tine, noi conducem lumea, noi dăm pâinea, noi dăm fericirea pe acest pământ. Iisus trebuie să fie din nou arestat ca să nu deranjeze mersul nostru.

Eliminarea lui Dumnezeu din lume şi din sufletul omului, pe orice cale – acesta este scopul ecumenismului, pe care l-a combătut şi Sf. Justin Popovici. Ecumenismul şi globalizarea reprezintă avangarda vremurilor apocaliptice.

Ce părere aveţi despre faptul că monofiziţii copţi sunt lăsaţi să slujească liturghiile lor în altarele ortodoxe din Mitropolia Munteniei?

Ei vor să deprindă ochiul şi spiritul ortodoxului cu obişnuinţa de a sluji împreună cu aceşti eretici, până când ajung să se împărtăşească din acelaşi potir. Pentru că ar putea să le dea dreptul de a-şi construi propriile lor biserici. Dar, nu, vor strategic să ne compromită altarele şi preoţii slabi de înger, care sunt grabnici la „supunere”. Pentru aceste probleme mult mai importante, prin care ţi se desfiinţează dogmele şi principiile ortodoxe, românii nu ştiu să protesteze, dar pentru o bucată de pâine mai degrabă. De ce credeţi că se întâmplă aşa? Ar protesta oamenii şi pentru acestea, dar aici este vorba de lipsa şi neintervenirea la timp a ierarhului, a păstorului Bisericii. Creștinul simplu dacă este informat şi i se explică adevărul, el imediat se implică, şi pe lângă bucata de pâine strigă şi pentru credinţă. Dar dacă nimeni nu îl ia la braţ să îi spună ce trebuie să facă, de unde să ştie singur, fără păstor?

Sunteți la curent cu dezbinarea din Biserica Serbiei, prin marginalizarea şi caterisirea Episcopului Artemie de Kosovo, care a îndrăznit să se lupte cu ecumenismul, papismul şi ocupaţia străină din neamul său. Practic acolo a început noua prigoană a creştinismului, dar puţini au fost cei care l-au susţinut, nici măcar românii…

Ne lipseşte solidaritatea sufletească; nu avem nevoie de una diplomatică, ci să consimtă creştinii de la sine. E ca şi cum ai o armată bună, dar nu ai arme. Păi cu ce să lupte? Susţinerea cuiva merge astăzi până când îţi este afectată pielea proprie, imaginea, ori statutul. Abia de aici încolo poţi spune că susţii pe cineva.

 

Consideraţi validă caterisirea episcopului Artemie?

Biserica adevărată este cu cei exilaţi şi marginalizaţi care învaţă corect predania Bisericii Ortodoxe. Adevărul este la Artemie, care păstrează corect învăţătura Sf. Justin Popovici, nu în capetele încoronate din faţa poporului. Şi poporul va fi de partea sa.

 

La noi poporul foarte greu conştientizează aceste adevăruri. Ce ne mai poate trezi?

Noi, românii, am trăit foarte mult perioada comunistă şi a intrat frica în noi. Pecetea fricii s-a întipărit în sufletele noastre. Frica, ateismul şi tăcerea – caracteristici de bază. Poporul trebuie să trăiască o energie spirituală de unitate şi înţelegere, măcar prin rugăciune, pentru că aşa vom primi discernere şi dor de continuitate spirituală creştină, dorul de neam, dor de Dumnezeu. Poporul român are forţa de a se reîntoarce la valorile şi faptele sale măreţe, aşa cum a fost de la începuturi. Aceasta este forţa pe care duşmanii noştri nu o înţeleg. Avem nevoie să ni se facă dor de neam, dor de Dumnezeu.

Sursa : realizat de monahia Fotini, 25 ianuarie 2012 pentru nr. 21 al revistei ATITUDINI

12 Feb
2012

George Anca – BETWEEN MAHAVIRA AND EMINESCU

George Anca

 

BETWEEN MAHAVIRA AND EMINESCU

GANDHIAN JAINISM IN ROMANIA

 *

            Meeting Acharya Mahapragya, listening to His Words, reading his books, and especially understanding, all the way through, what happens with one’s mind and actual Ahimsa path of transformation of heart and thus of mankind itself were among life term achievements. Post-Gandhian career of non-violence appeared as a global re-foundation of urgent ahimsa practice, from a non-violent life style to economics – e.g. hunger and poverty as sources of violence -, and spirituality in the light of Ahimsa Prashikshan. Instead of formal declarations we shared, tens and thousands of us, an intimate, almost silent consciousness change helped by most qualified trainers, under the guidance of Acharya Mahapragya and Uvacharya Mahashraman.

            As A Romanian, I tried to spread the teachings of Rajsamand. I wrote afterwards a micro-novel – The Orissa Woman. Jain Poem – and I did a research on Ahimsa in Romanian literature from the ancient ballad Mioritsa/The Little Lamb/Memna (in Hindi) to the new Romanian Heysichasm, rereading in ahimsa-key poets like Mihai Eminescu, Lucian Blaga, Vasile Voiculescu. Before Rajsamand I lectured, at Delhi University, on Mircea Eliade’s Centenary in the World, mentioning that he has introduced ahimsa concept in Romania and commented Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent revolution.

            Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889) rewrote in Romanian on his own the beginning of the world from a sparkling point, as in Nasadya Sukta.  Even a violent birth of cosmos has to be challenged.  I wish  Eminescu were in Rajsamand and see the tenth Terapanth Acharya, Mahapragya as a confirmation of his holy visions.

            Climbing the Hill with thought to Tirthankaras and Terapanths, some of us got an increased feeling of Christmas on 25th December, few days after Id. Dr. Gandhi made clear once more our growth through Rajsamand encounter, a landarmak in our way to better humanity. Rudi sent here his Introduction to Jainism. Mezaki found similarities between Shinto and Dacian Zalmoxe. Gabriela spoke of enthusiasm in Rajsamand. Thomas reformulated his interfaith statement.

            Vinod wrote me a letter just in Rajsamand. And I received in Bucharest from the editors – P.V. Rajagopal and S. Jeyapragasam – Ahimsa NONVIOLENCE -, International Gandhian Institute for Nonviolence and Peace, Madurai, May-June 2007, including articles “Economics of Nonviolence and Peace” by Acharya Mahapragyaji, and “The Nonviolent Revolution – the Italian who embraced Gandhi’s Satyagraha to oppose Fascism and War-II” by Rocco Altieri.

“The search for spiritual salvation did not require Gandhi to retire to a cave as a hermit, for he carries the cave with him” (A. Capitini )

*

 

            Romanian priest and scholar Constantin Galeriu speaks on Mahatma Gandhi as the only leader of revolutions who discovered the Saviour, through Sermon on the Mountain preaching to  love one’s enemies. He proved to his enemies that he loved them, even dying as a martyr. In his own words: “I think only evil should be hated not evil-doers even when I could be the victim”;Not to admit and to detest your enemies’ mistakes should never rule out compassion”,

and even love for them”.

            The same spirit was shared recently in Romania by the author of The man, his people and the empire: ‘What is freedom?’ probed one student after Rajmohan Gandhi’s address at a university in Baia Mare, a northern Romanian city of 130,000 that was once a major mining centre. Prof Gandhi replied that ‘if the state tells me what to do, I say I will resist. But if my conscience asks me not to do something, I want to obey it. Then I find I have inner freedom.’

For them, and his university audience, Gandhi highlighted four key points;

 ‘If you’re planning a strategy for a community or country, leave absolutely no-one out;

 ‘Have the courage to speak the truth to your own side;

 ‘Think a lot but also leave room for inspiration;

‘If you find hatred around you, fight it. If people are hating each other, reconcile them. If someone is hating you, forgive him.’ (Rob Lancaster, “Romania: Reaching out to young leaders” 22/04/2010).

            On a blog on internetnet, Ion Burhan sees in Gandhi’s satyagraha a way to make conscious some “social sins” of Romanian society  such as: richness without work, pleasure without conscience, knowledge without character, gain without morals; science without humanism, religion without personal sacrifice, politics without principles.  An article by Satish Kumar on Jain religion, translated into Romanian, keeps in original the supplementary readings as for a global communion: Padmanabha Jaini, Jaina Path of Purification, Jawahar Nagar, Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidas, 1979. / Acharya Mahaprajna, Anekanta: The Third EyeLadnun, Rajasthan, India: Jain Vishva Bhavati, 2002. Email: books@JVBI.org. / Umasvati, That Which Is: Tattvartha Sutra, translated by Nathmal Tatia, San Francisco and London: Harper Collins, 1994. / Pratapaditya Pal, The Peaceful Liberators: Jain Art from India (1995). New York and London: co-published by Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson. / Jan Van Alphen, Steps to Liberation: 2,500 Years of Jain Art and Religion (2000). Antwerp, Belgium: Etnografisch Museum.

            On the site of Biblitheca publishing house is announced (May 2011) the last book issued in Romanian translation: Introducere in Jainism by Rudi Jansma and Sneh Rani Jain. Ahimsa – “the heart of Jainism” -, Gandhi – modern apostle of Jainism -, Karma are among key words of the presentation for general public.

            A letter sent to Romanian Parliament by Cristina María Speluzzi from Buenos Aires República Argentina is opened by a quotation from Gandhi:

Honorable Members of the Romanian Parliament,

Distinguished Officials,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

The greatness and the MORAL progress of a nation can be judged by the way the animals are treated ” (M. Gandhi)

The dark specter of a death sentence for strays in Romania is again of major concern for people from all over the world…

Again, poor innocent animals are about to be legally massacred by the tens of thousands…

We found out that The Romanian Parliament’s Committee for Public Administration Territorial Planning and Ecological Balance intends to make a new law regarding the management of strays….and they want :

- the dogs captures by the dog catchers will be PTS after 14 or maximum 60 days ( those considered dogs for fights, aggressive breeds will be PTS after 48h or 10 days ; those sick will be PTS immediately )

- sick animals will not be given for adoption.

- those who feed or take care of strays will be fined

- the minimum conditions for the captures, living quarters, transport, care ( food and shelter ) WILL BE ELIMINATED FROM the new law

- the clear description of how the euthanasia will be done and what substances are to be used WILL BE ELIMINATED FROM the new law…it will be replaced with ” the euthanasia will be done by a specialist “.

- the non profit organizations for animal protection WILL HAVE NO RIGHT to complain about the living conditions of dogs in municipal shelters. the control will be done only by the Sanitary-veterinary Authority.

- the non profit organizations for animal protection WILL HAVE NO RIGHT to capture, take care or spat/neuter strays.

*

            In his book  The Gandhian Mode of Becoming, Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad, 1998, Dr. Catalin Mamali adds to the “simple list” of comparison terms –   Socrates, Jesus, Buddha,

Confucius, Martin Luther, Thoreau, Ruskin, Tolstoy, Steiner, Marx, Tagore, Freud, Mao, Lenin, Savarkar, Martin Luther King Jr., and Mother Teresa -  one more frame of reference: Niccolo Machiavelli. A special feature for a book on Gandhi published in India may be also the large number of Romanian authors in bibliography: Badina O, Blaga L, Botez M, Brucan S, Constante L, Draghicescu M, Eliade M, Gusti D, Herseni T, Ierunca V, Istrati P, Mamali C, Neculau A, Preda M, Zapan G.

            “As a thinker and practioner of politics Machiavelli had a profound influence on European political life. Seeking power through any means was the major principle of his philosophy.

As against this Gandhi preached and practiced ethical principles of purity of means for attaining his objectives. One can hardly imagine two completely opposite view points and

their paths of life. (Govindbhai Raval, Vice Chancellor, in “Foreword”)

            “Mamali’s book has one organizing axis a comparison of Gandhi with Machiavelli, for

understanding both of them better, as each other’s contrast, dialectionally – not to end up telling the reader whom he should follow. Interestingly, they were both fighting for freedom

of their lands. But to Machiavelli such giant tasks accrued to the Prince. To Gandhi the liberation could only be done by those who should be liberated; the people, not the way Machiavelli (and the Marxist tradition) saw them, as “masses,” as superficial admirers of success: hence to be led by feeding them with successes.” (Johan Galtung in “Introduction”).

           

In the end the author makes a pool – each of the 140 statements can be given grades between 1 and 5 according to the readers’ degree of agreement or disagreement to the respective position.  Here are some of  satyagraha, ahimsa, but also aparigraha statements.

1. It is impossible to detach, to separate the ends from the means.

 

6. Any economy ignoring moral values is ultimately wicked and artificial.

8. The individual entrusted with a public mission should by no means accept valuable

presents.

 

20. Any person willing to act in support of social welfare should never depend on public

charity.

21. Only when a person is able to look at his/her own errors through a magnifying glass

and at the others’ through a minimizing one, is he/she capable to correctly evaluate

his/her and the others’ mistakes.

 

 42. Centralization as a system is improper for the non-violent functioning, and organization

of the society. It is hard to achieve a non-violent society within centralized systems.

47. Most of the people would rather forget their own father’s death than the loss of their

fortunes.

 

50. Not to admit and to detest your enemies’ mistakes should never rule out compassion

and even love for them.

The means should be in harmony with the purpose.

 

67. It is altogether difficult for a person living in dire poverty to achieve his moral

development. Those who accomplish it in such strained circumstances are people of

extraordinary ability.

73. Bad means cannot help attain good ends.

 

90. In my opinion any person who eats the fruits of the earth without sharing them with the

others and who is of no use to the others is a thief.

 

96. Non-violence is indispensable to genuine economic development.

98. I think only evil should be hated not evil-doers even when I could be the victim.

99. In my opinion a person should never use friendship to gain favours.

 

112. I think that the most efficient means to have justice done is to do justice to my own

enemy.

114. When many people live in dire poverty, it is of utmost importance to cultivate in all of

us the mental attitude of not boasting objects and appliances which are denied tomillions of people, and, consequently, to reorganize our lives in keeping with this mentality as fast as possible.

120. I think that each and every person should give up the desires to possession of as many things as possible.

124. Individuals should primarily use goods produced by indigenous economy.

 *

 INDOEMINESCOLOGY (MIHAI EMINESCU AND INDIA)

*

Public Address to the President of India, H.E. Shanker Dayal Sharma, at ceremony  of  Receiving  Honorary Doctorate, Bucharest University

            Your Excellency Mr. President of India, Sharmaji,

Your gracious meeting offered to Romanian specialists in Indian studies, mainly from Bucharest, here, it’s a high honor, a stimulation and also a consolation. For it’s a tragic issue of Stalinist-Communist dictatorship that best thinkers, Indologists included, were jailed. But riks and slokas from Vedas and Upanishads were still communicated by Morse alphabet.

            We feel getting, at last, a free way to knowledge of Indian spirit and culture. Perhaps the moksha/salvation was the most appreciated quality of Indian spirit, together with Christian, Indian and universal dharma and shanti.

            Mihai Eminescu, Romanian national poet, declared himself a Buddhist as an empowered Christian. During more than 15 years I had talks and letters about Mihai Eminescu, mainly in and from India, but also other continents; they make some personal and Indo-eminescological history in an epistolar novel I had honor to dedicate to your excellency, Mr. President of India, Dr. Sharma ji.

            Kind of field researcher, I taught Romanian, between 1977-1984, at University of Delhi, while Prof. dr. Prabhu Dayal Vidyasagar was teaching Hindi at Bucharest University.

            My mother has just died before and so India became my mother – now it was no problem how good India was to me, but how good was I to her.

            I am grateful to legions of people in India, from great writers and professors like Amrita Pritam, Ageya, Nagendra, R.C. Mehrotra, Gurbakhsh Singh – former vicechancellors of Delhi University – to my colleagues and students in the university.

            Surely the exchange of teachers between universities is a must.

            Suppose India and Romania would have their cultural centers in Delhi and in Bucharest respectively, smaller and in a way more cultural cities like Iaşi, Cluj, Timişoara, Râmnicu-Vâlcea, for Romania, and Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh, Bangalore, Trivandrum for India may be taken in consideration.

            Romanian-Indian Cultural Society, started recently, in 1993, beyond university and formal scientific research on Indology, is trying to gather interested people in different topics of Indian culture. Many young and gifted persons are eager to study Indian arts, dance and music, to be on scholarship in their dreamland.

            We can only slightly open a door toward an endless realm.

            Finally, I will dare to evoke a very special Indo-Romanian tradition dealing with human freedom and make a call for your judgment.

            Early 1990′s Romanian new press acknowledged both India’s international support to political prisoners and their recognition to pundit Jawaharlal Nehru who provoked a visit of then UN Secretary General U Thant.

            Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, when vice president of India, made shorter the sentence of poet Radu Gyr.

            As a representative to UN International Association of Educators for World Peace, I request now, Mr. President of India, your high intervention that Mr. Ilie Ilaşcu, parliamentarian, jailed in Tiraspol, for only guilt of being Romanian, to be liberated.

*

The International Academy Mihai Eminescu

            First draft – 1991 – to be completed by acknowledgments, other names of poets, thinkers, artists, translators, eminescologists, educators, desiring to be together unto poetry/shanti.

            Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungarx, India, Iran, Irak, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, United Kingdom, USSR, USA, Yugoslavia

 

            MEMBERS / HONORARY INVITED

            Rafael Alberti, Robert Bly, Emil Cioran, Rosa del Conte, Yolanda Eminescu, Evgheni Evtushenko, John Fowles, Vaclav Havel, Daisaku Ikeda, Eugen Ionesco, Octavio Paz, Amrita Pritam (president since 1981), Salman Rushdie, Leopold Sedhar Senghor, Bogdan Suhodolsky, Grigore Vieru.

 

            MEMBERS AT LARGE

            Anna Aalten, B. Abanuka, Tawfik El Abdo, Prachoomsuk Achava-Amrung, Ioan Alexandru (organizer), Ion Andreiţă, O. M. Anujan, Lourdes Arizpe, Werner Bahner, Andrei Bantaş, Romano Baroni, Georges Barthouil, Al Bayati, Enric Becescu, Eva Behring, Amita Bhose, Danuta Bienkowska, Carlo Bernardini, Eveline Blamont, Ana Blandiana, Lucian Boz, Ion Caramitru, Margaret Chatterjee, Mary Ellen-Chatwin, Mihai Cimpoi, Silvia Chiţimia, Henri Claessen, Georges Condominas, Lean-Louis Courriol, Robert Creeley, Petru Creţia, Marco Cugno, Nicolae Dabija, Rodny Daniel, Nilima Das, Sisir Kumar Das, Mahendra Dave, Guenther Deicke, Francis Dessart, Stanislaw Dobrowolski, P. Vidyasagar Dayal, Metoda Dodic-Fikfak, Mihai Drăgan, Livia Drăghici, Jules Dufur, Zoe Dumitrescu-Buşulenga, Anton Dumitriu, Monika Egde, Christian Eggebert, Didona Eminescu, Roland Erb, Jiri Felix, Galdi Laszlo, Roy Mac Gregor-Hastie, Al Giuculescu, Allain Guillermou, Herbert Golder, Klaus Heitmann, Helena Helva, Gerard Herberichs, Carmen Hendershott, Anna Hohenwart, Peter Hook, Alexandra Hortopan, Kazimiera Illakowiczowna, Philip Iseley, Judith Isroff, Ion Iuga, Vilenka Jakac-Bizjak, Rafik Vihati Joshi, Elena M. Koenigsberg, Maria Kafkova, Iuri Kojevnikov, Henrik Konarkovski, Omar Lara, Leonida Lari, Maria Teresa Leon, Catherine Lutard, Keshav Malik, Muhamed Maghoub, Fidelis Masao, Liliana Mărgineanu, Pino Mariano, Constantin Mateescu, Anna Mathai, Dumitru Matkovski, Charles Mercieca, Ion Milos, Baldev Mirza, George Munteanu, Chie Nakane, Ion Negoiţescu, Wanda Ostap, Ayappa Panikar, Sheila Pantry, Daniel Perdigao, Augustin Petre, Irina Petrescu, Max Demeter Peyfuss, Jane Plaister, Franco Prendi, Carlos, Queiroz, Zorica Rajkovic, Lisa Raphal, Peter Raster, Ruprecht Rohr, Marcel Roşculeţ, Mario Ruffini, Angelo Sabbattini, A. M. Sadek, Zeus Salazar, Patricia Sarles, Monika Segbert, Joachim Schuster, Vinod Seth, Satyavrat Shastri, Andrei Simic, Norman Simms, William Snodgrass, Mihai Stan, Dumitru Stăniloae, Sygmunt Stobersky, Sanda Stoleru, Sorin Stratilat, Arcadie Suceveanu, Eric Sunderland, Bathelemy Taladoire, Akile Tezkan, Eugen Todoran, Fernando Tola, Mona Toscano-Pashke, Urmila Rani Trikha, Kliment Tsacev, Mihai Ursachi, Bruno Uytersprot, Nelson Vainer, Isabela Valmarin, Dimitrie Vatamaniuc, Romulus & Mihu Vulcănescu, J.L. Vig, Brenda Walker, Xu Wende, Reinhold Werner, Rudolf Windish, Mario Zamora

 

            MEMBERS IN MEMORIAM

 

            Anna Ahmatova, Sergiu Al-George, Gheorghe Anghel, Tudor Arghezi, George Bacovia, Ion Barbu, Lucian Blaga, Samson Bodnărescu, Alexandru Bogdan, N.N. Botez, Petre Brânzeu, Victor Buescu, Anta Raluka Buzinschi, George Călinescu, I. L. Caragiale, Iorgu Caragiale, Toma Chiricuţă, Pompiliu Constantinescu, Aron Cotruş, Ion Creangă, Dimitrie Cuclin, Mihail Dragomirescu, Mircea Eliade, Gheorghe Eminescu, Gheorghe Eminovici, Franyo Zoltan, Galgi Laszlo, Gala Galaction, Mozes Gaster, Onisifor Ghibu, Petre Grimm, Ion Goraş, N.I. Herescu, G. Ibrăileanu, Nicolae Iorga, Petru Iroaie, Josef Sandor, Ivan Krascko, Mite Kremnitz, Franco Lombardi, E. Lovinescu, Titu Maiorescu, Alfred Margul-Sperber, Veronica Micle, Matei Millo, Gheorghe Nedioglu, Constantin Noica, Ramiro Ortiz, Sylvia Pankhurst, Vasile Pârvan, Perpessicius,  Ioana Em. Petrescu, Gheorghe Pituţ, Miron Pompiliu, Augustin Z. N. Pop, Cornelui M. Popescu, Aron Pumnul, Salvatore Quasimodo, Ianis Ritsos, Mihail Sadoveanu, George Bernard Shaw, Ioan Slavici, Nichita Stănescu, Carmen Sylva, Carlo Tagliavini, Fani Tardini, Vasile Văduva, Tudor Vianu

 

*

EMINESCU, A FOLKLORE…

(by Vinod Seth)

They call Eminescu a poet, a gem

I always called him a diamond

I called him folk-lore

He, whom we call Eminescu

Hardly separated from the air anywhere

A poet called him a tree, an echo

But he who is as clear as stones in the brook

Is a smoothened dazzling diamond

Never from mountain poetry is torn

Eyes from his Brancusi bird

Fly high to sit by his bust

Ion Mândrescu, the artist of skill

Takes away poetry from his crust

And hangs on him the diamond bullets

To let him be the martyr in revolution

Poet he was, but poets don’t die

Eminescu was the folklore of revolutions

He hung poetry like muslin cloths

On his face a smile in store

Folklore made Eminescu and Eminescu made folklore

A Hindi, Sanskrit base as before

Eminescu took a round of whole this globe

Poetry beheads him, gives him folklore

Eminescu sings an epic tune to us

Eminescu we hear on telecom

Then we ask him May we come in?

Eminescu say Yes if you glass cut the rocks

 

            P.S. You will be pleased   a sculpture (a woman’s head in brass in French Museum’s collection, made by Bruncush, was recently exhibited in the National Gallery of Modern Art, which was the first sculpture I saw from Bruncushi. If more than one busts of Eminescu are sent may be we can give them to some institutions.

*

LIBERTIES…

(By Vinod Seth)

Death in the year of Eminescu’s death

Better than Romanians speak

And speak they 25 years ache

Achile’s heal has kicked Ceausescu’s head

And with bullets riddled his face

We wouldn’t dare a return

While dying he doesn’t look as young

As much as in publicity photographs

which his ambassador has to give or gave

Liberty

Only you are young

Noe live with Romanian grace…

Up and up on this hill is love

Then on the peak is a flag

Brancusi has put there a slab

Romanians call it Eminescu’s grave

Up on the hill one year is past

Up on the hill a look down is cast

Flags fly 80 000 at half mast

Revolution is like those of the French

Like Shiva’s dance on Christ’s cross

They had a thirst for poison, had to quench

The people had told at last who is the boss

Christmas said it is Santa-Claus

Death said no! he has worn my dress

The only liberty is on peoples’ face.

Now will you read my poem again

Yes if my all friends are slain

And only free self of Romania is again

This army is friend of the poets

The army is Eminescu and also his poem

Eminescu at his death centenary awake

Has turned the quick most page

Salutes to people, to Eminescu, to army

Government’s area TV serial case

*

Pastiche

 

The intended review to the dissertation of Ms. Zircha Vaswani became mostly a pastiche. Because we have to deal with a very free, kind of mystical construction of comparisons, in which Mihai Eminescu’s poems and Indian scriptures are brought side-by-side into a fascinating personal adventure of the author. The abhored by now Eminescu cult in his motherland  turns into an Indian cult, with a chance to be recovered, in competition, for own culture.

            A sacrificial work, a puja full of piety and effervescence addresses everybody on the way, like in a new beginning of the religious aesthetic spirit. Courageous or euphoric, like in a trance, the author restarts as if the universe like in solitary temple procession, hearing her native prayers in verses by Eminescu.

            Ioan Alexandru, Amita Bhose and myself were colleagues of doctorate under guidance of professor Zoe Dumitrescu-Buşulenga. Ioan translated odes of Pindar in his dissertation itself, Amita published separately her book of translations from Eminescu into Bengali, myself didn’t translate a line (perhaps also because Baudelaire, my topic, is the most translated foreign poet into Romanian). Ms. Zricha Vaswani translates Eminescuss “Indian” poems as her own soul and hope.

            I don’n know her personally. There are universities with the name of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in Agra, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Muzaffarpur, Delhi. The architect of Indian Constitution (while handling it to me also, the late president of India Shankar Dyal Sharma said: The Constitution of the World!) had the  message. “Educate, organize, agitate”.

 

*

A MASTER COURSE IN PSYCHOLOGY-SOCIOLOGY ON ENERGETIC NONVIOLENCE AND NON-POSSESSION

 

Main themes of the master course on energetic nonviolence and non-possession:

 

Exploring social violence. Motivation of violent behaviour (protection, „fight or flight”, groups and identity). Conflict prevention – systemic (globalization, international crime), structural (predatory states, horizontal inequities), operational (accelerators and detonators of conflict – e.g. Poverty of sources, afflux of small guns, elections).

 

Anthropology of nonviolence: Jain ahimsa and aparigraha. Buddhist karuna. Christian pity. Gandhian nonviolence. Principles of anekanta (relativity).

 

Ancient Mahavira has classified people in three categories: having many desires (Mahechha), having few desires (Alpechha), having no desires (Ichhajayi). The economy of nonviolence, along with poverty eradication, applies also Mhavira’s concept of vrati (dedicated) society. He gave three directions regarding production: not to be manufacturated weapons of violence (ahimsappyane), not to be assembled weapons (asanjutahikarne), not to be made instruction for sinful and violent work (apavkammovades). Following anekanta, the philosophy of Mahavira synthesizes personal fate and initiative.

 

Book case: Blaga, energie românească / Lucian Blaga, Romanian energy by Vasile Băncilă / Cluj, Colecţia „Gând românesc”, 1938 (a re-edition with notes and a bio bibliographic table by Ileana Băncilă, Timişoara, Editura Marineasa, 1995), is the first book on poet and philosopher, remained until today “the most subtle analysis of ethnic coordinates of Blagianism, on the fund of daring philosophy of Romanian spirit” (Răzvan Codrescu). To the “mioritic” space, (hill), Băncilă adds the „supramioritic” (mountain) and submioritic (Danube, „imperial Danube”). Vasile Băncilă wrote, discreetly, under communist repression, four volumes of „aphorisms and para-aphorisms”, published posthumously, 1990′s, bringing out own gigantic energies.

„The created world is the stage of divine theater, and people are the actors. This theaters has scenery, props and changes of stage at once fantastic and realist, and people act almost always very well their role, what doesn’t happen in the usual theaters or plays of theater.

Shakespeare has caught only a ray from divine dramaturgy and delights up to transfigured amazement. But what would it be if we could contemplate, in its universality, the drama created by God? Only the mystics understand something from it.” (Vasile Băncilă).

The divine energies were theologized  betwee the two world wars by Dumitru Stăniloae.

Here are some excerpts from Romanian thinkers of the same epoch on related topics (translated by George Anca).

Lucian Blaga:

„The intellect, destined among others to the enigmatic operation to husk intuition from accidental and to rise it on a high plateau of essences, creates in contact with concrete intuition certain concepts which from logical point of view are impossible, because they imply the antinomy. As illustration, let choose an example which played a remarkable role in certain „logics”. The concepts we speak about are all made after the shape and resemblance of the concept „becoming”. The concept of „becoming” closes in it, as it was remarked, an antinomy. This concept, analysed under logical angle, splits in contradictory terms: nonexistence-existence. Under pure logical aspect, the concept of „becoming” is impossible, it couldn’t be made on way of logical synthesis out of the two antinomic terms. The concept has been made on foundation direct of „intuition”, which shows us the „becoming” as possible.

            When the intellect performs, for instance, the act of puting of a space, of a moment, of a unity, it believes justified to repeat at infinite this act, at least on an ideal plan. Such an initial act is generated virtually at infinite on the basis of special dynamics of the intellect. The licence of which the spirit makes use this time is that to believe in possibility of repetition without limit of the same act of puting of a something, be it even only on an ideal plan. The intellect behaves as if the initial act would comprise in itself also all the others, at infinite. An act of puting of a something is but from logical point of view identical only with itself, but it is not identical with its repetition at infinite. Evidently, the intellect assumes also this time a right, to whose influence can not purloin, but which logically leads to gratuituous creations. Notions as those of infinite space, infinite time, of infinite number, etc. presupose after all the licence about which we speak.

            The human intellect, in state of autoconstruction, before operating on foundation of logical principles – operates paradoxically, with feats of strength, on bases of licences we don’t know who accorded to it. All these licences are logically impermeable. Their totality constitutes a kind „permanent” coefficient in genere. This coefficient must be accepted as it is.”

            „We have fixed, through these few ideas, the pillars of a theory which authorises us to see in a new light also the problem of „archetypes”. It is no doubt that in creations of culture (myths, art, metaphysics, religious ideas, moral ideas, etc.) the nuclear presence of certain „archetypes” can be guessed and then discovered as such in the back of disguisings which it endures. And it is no doubt that the nuclear presence of some archetypes can be discovered also in the fantesies of psychopats. But a capital difference intervenes between modes as „the archetypes” manifest in processes of culture and how they manifest in the fantesies of psychopats…

            Archetypes, out of most different ones, we can envision as effective nuclei around which so many creations of culture coagulate, but in these processes of creation, the archetypes appear „always” modelled „in stylistic patterns”, being dominated by these, as long as in fantesies of psychopats some „autonomous complexes” make felt their presence…

            In marge of such considerations it can be emited the hypothesis that in pshichic-spiritual life of each human individual the archetypes and stylistic factors are effectively present like certain „powers”. When between these powers is declared a disequilibrium, in the sense that, through the enrgy inherent to them, the stylistic factors are not any more able to dominate archtypes, is given the failure of the individual in psychopathy.”

Dan Botta :

 „The radiant universe of the Romanian and perfect world of his conceptions is unendured. This is the entire sense, single sense of Eminescu’s pessimism. Eminescu adores the world, contemplate it greedily, gets drunk – like in the verse of „Rugăciunea unui dac”/The prayer of a Dacian – from the fountains of its splendours, but he knows himself destined to sorrow. So it explains that sentiment  „dureros de dulce”/sorrowfully sweet of existence and all what in his verse is explosion of sorrow is anthem of joy alltogether. He pushed his pessimism – if this is pessimism – up to there where Romanians push it. Books of Schopenhauer didn’t give neither its conscience. It is alive since centuries in Romanian people. The Romanian says: „I make shadow to the earth”. I put once this word in connection with believes of Thracia: the existence throws a spot on luminous body of world. Life is a guilt, a sin. The testimony of Herodot, who had noted this faith of Thracia, is confirmed enirely by Romanian people. 

            „Shadow to earth”, this sentiment of supreme bitterness, of solitude and supreme uselessness, goes through Eminescian poetry. There are moments of deepest depression.

            They don’t exclude – on the contrary – the conscience of infinite beauty of world. They utter the thirst of detachment from the contingential, the thirst for evasion, of the extasy. They invoke death – as threshold of joy, of that region where are open the perspectives of supreme beauty, the power of participation to phrenetic life of the whole – eternal comunication, cuminecătura/the eucharist of elements.”

Constantin Noica :

„The being of world is neither something determined, but nor blind undetermination, but endless possibility, destined to accomplish itself to an all-good-ordering intellect or through forms and laws ready given from outside.

            And in the last thought, that of today man, it seems as if, indeed, the being of world is an endless possibility of the matter, but not of that which is informed from outside, but of that which makes alone its form; that though the being of world is a becoming with history.

            This history of the real which affirms is described, step by step, during own history, the thought which denies…

            When it rises from anorganic nature to that organic, the matter obtains something unbelievable: the finitude.

            In the bosom of anorganic nature, everything had to be infinite, the matter couldn’t sum up. The states were infinite, the movements – unlimited…

            With its infinite variety of forms, the alterity which closes into an identity realises the infinity in the finite, the individual, the individual being, the „organism”; It is like a whole inside of the whole of world; it is a part issued from condition of part. Only with the individual being it starts the world of realities instead of that of states, pocesses, elements or general substances…

            In fund, they are categories of the „individual” real, therefore, categories of the finitude, as the five Platonian ones were not, neither the being in genere, nor the state, nor the movement, and nor identity or alterity.”

 

            „The plurality is the aspect of maturity of things…

            The thought of man only when „distinguishes” starts to understand and only when says „we” comes out from minor stage…

            Association, adhesion, aggregation, amalgamation and so many other modes of dead or living matters are suggested directly in bosom of plurality. A second one, naturally, is the multiplication, which not only that carry , like the first, over plurality, but it alone is spring of plurality, like in reproduction. A third operation, rising to power, comes to prove mature operation in the bosom of plurality, in measure in which it integrates the first two.

            For rising to power is a synthesis, an added multiplication. It represents an expansion which in the same time preserves itself concentrated around a term, giving thus to the plurality both the power to affirm itself as such, as well as, like in case of the wave, that of not losing and spreading through one affirmation. When one sees in the show of world – how we register it with the plant and now with the entire material universe – the operations undertook everywhere, as well as organised animation which resulted from here, one asks what more man has to add.

            The man is come to add „the numbering”.

            The number, the „arithmos”, becomes the golden key for the world of plurality…

            You can not number with a single unity; from beginning you must have the decade, therefore 1, 2,…, 9, nine simple distinct units, „plus” the superior unit of decade. And what are you doing in definitive when you number? You count before the first 9 units, that is you name them in order; then you count the tens seen as units, that is you name nine „tens” and so on by nine.

            But what is this? It is our number, are our „classes” of numbers, it is our golden key for plurality…

            The man believed that the number represents glorification of plurality and recognition of its sovreignty in the world. In fact didn’t do but to trivialize it…

            Only retained plurality, only unity in plurality give to this a sense…

            And the unit of plurality is other thing than both unity and plurality: It is totalaity.”

 

            „The being gives only the „knitting between general and individual”…

            The science of being doesn’t reach its target if it doesen’t account of individual being, of „this” arbre, „this” man, „this” historical creature. But it must do it for „any individual being, therefore from perspective of general being….

            The individuality can give and can acquire any determinations ( like vortex in void of material points or spreading in void of waves), but has not truly the measure of being.

            The world can be full of this secondary nonbeing; and if in the world of inanimate matter it is not striking, because here just secondary unbeing is the rule and being the exception, in exchange, in the worlld of life and of man – which has costed the matter so much endeavour in order to coagulate – the non being and nonaccomlishment are a true cosmic failure, in a sense. And this doesn’t mean but: the conversion didn’t happen.

            It seems then that the ontologic model resulting from here is simple: an individuality is open through determinations which open under a generality; an ontological field acquire being and insurence, as becoming field of generality…

            … The being of things, the being of the existent searched by the ontology – namely:  what is truly in the world? – acquires, with the archaei, a solidary conceptual answer with all what we have done visibly in the developing of  Romanian sentiment of being, from the „question” over what it is upto the possible ontologic model.”

            “The Romanian sentiment of being is other than that of ultimate safety of it – not in what regards the knoweledge of man over himself, rather of the order of essence than of immediate and sure existence. That for, we have prefered to say here pre-being, sometimes, for being (which comprises both essence as well as existence); but in the same time, we don’t invoke the simple „essence”, because this „separates” from existence, while thr pre-being presuposes and sends to it all the time.

            Under pre-being we comprised:

-         the unaccomplished being, expressed in our language through „n-a fost să fie”/it wasn’t to be;

-         the superior being, through „era să fie”/it was likely to be;

-         the eventual being, with „va fi fiind”/it will be being;

-         the possible being, with „ar fi să fie”/it would be to be;

-         the being of entrance into being, with „este să fie”/it is to be;

-         the finished, consummated accomplished being, with „a fost să fie”/it was to be.

In all these modalities it remains it appears a sending to existence as a moment of accomplishment.But the moment remains an end of road, the modalities being its steps of ensuring.

For why the being must appear in the hypostasis of safety and of complete reality (which could mean, for some ones, the simple „individual reality”)?”

Vasile Bancila:

„The man, in front of the non-ego or of a cosmic infinity, seeing its smallness, answers often with absolutisation of own ego. It is a reaction totally dispropotioned and as such absurd. But as long as the man has lost the inconscience however sensible of the animals, through which these live in harmony with universal reality, he is obliged to search a compensation which to take him out from dispair of noticing his unsignificance in the infinite of total existence.

            But the soulution found leads to solitude and to nihilism, that is to still a bigger dispair. So that the true solution must be searched in other part: in noticing of the absolute in things and beyond of them, who made these things and man himself, of whom be it modest reflex is the man and to whom he follows to return. This is, in fact, the essence of any proper religion. In this mode, the man rebecomes an absolute, but not through automation, but through integration.

            But the modern man moves off often from religious vision and that for exploits the method of autonomous absolutization, sometimes even luciferian, of own ego. On this way, the modern man conceives himself as a kind of metaphisical Huitzilopochtli. But this is a way of salvation which leads him at last to the madhouse. And if he is philosopher, he creates phenomenist systems, to not say phenomenal.”

 

             ”We can not know the absolute but as reflex, or as echo. Hence we can not know even at least a part of the absolute, because the absolute is entire in each part and to know a part of it would mean to know the whole absolute or absolute as such.

            When it is question of absolute, we can not express in quantitative values, we can not say, for example, that we know the absolute through progressive accumulations with tendency to know it once completely, as some ideologues apparently scientific believe. The absolute can not be revealed in fragments, but in aspects, transfigurations, reflexes or echos.

            The knowledge of the absolute is a Taborite phenomenon or act. It lights and blinds at the same time. This knowledge ressembles to a certain extent with the kind how some blind men „see” the light. They have not a proper organ for this, but feel the light as an invasion, as a transfiguration of existence.

            These reflexes or echos of the absolute are captured and valorised in dogmas. These later are crystals at the same time of light and of mystery. They are the precised substance of mystical knowledge, of essential knowledge and represents all what human mind can understand more deeply. Through them we are free of both shortcoming of skepticism, which is funeral then when it doesn’t content to be only the beginning of philosophy, and not its end, as wel as of that of positive knowledge, wich is brutal when it mixes in the field of ineffable subtlety of the absolute.”

 

             „The light disappears, but doesn’t transform into darkness.

            The darkness disappears, but doesn’t transform in light.

            Because here we touch the two ultimate principles of existence, wich are reciprocal inconvertible.

            Is the darkness a weaker light and the light a weaker darkness?

            Any opinion would have the physicists, morally and ontologically, it can not be a transition from one to another. From this point of view, at most the light can destroy the darkness or inverse, but can not transform one into another.”

            “The truth is that religious men and all people with spiritual living are preoccupied by evil, but with aim of salvation or of moral perfecting – and not for falling in pessimism, in drama, in doubting about health and sense of existence as such and so much little of its creator. They are not therefore obsessed of evil as of a master who become the patron of the world, as of something which spoils irremediable our life, but as a kind of props, be it even grave, in the strugle and unique theatre of existence, of our life.

            The evil becomes, in other words, something which us, with help of God, we master.

            With this the reference inverts and the evil, as massive as it would appear, becomes however something secondary.”

 „The light disappears, but doesn’t transform into darkness.

            The darkness disappears, but doesn’t transform in light.

            Because here we touch the two ultimate principles of existence, wich are reciprocal inconvertible.

            Is the darkness a weaker light and the light a weaker darkness?

            Any opinion would have the physicists, morally and ontologically, it can not be a transition from one to another. From this point of view, at most the light can destroy the darkness or inverse, but can not transform one into another.”

 

Nae Ionescu:

God, in hypostasis the Father, represents the pure existence, and in hypostasis St. Ghost, represents God in us. Between God the Father and God St. Ghost, stays God the the Son, who is – according to Christian metaphysics – the logos become body, that is the form in which we can understand God. Chrit, that is God the Son, is the intermediary which make the link God the Father and God the St. Ghost, that is between emanatist God and immanentist God, between God who creates the entire existence and God who is in us.

The after-war state has become merchant, participant to affairs, industrialist, competitor to its subjects themselves. The old neutrality has evaporated from conscience of citizens. Eahch of them doesn’t content to ask the State to warrant his person and fortune, but asks intervention of State in any occasion, if not directly in his favour, but at least in favour  of production class to which he belongs.

„Our STATE is too expansive for our COUNTRY”. Too expansive and unproper. The theory woud be it good; but we who are not doing theories – or don’t do than „to explain” the realities which are and not „to justify” realities which we would desire to set up – we can not forget a fundamental fact: that Romanian modern state has been created by townmen or by devotees of urban cult. And this was the original sin of this state. Because in Romanian country the urban spirit didn’t ever exist; or at least it was never a prevailing decissive component of Romanian collectivity…

 

Mircea Vulcanescu:

„The principle of material individuation, through time and through space, springs from a metaphysics of objective existence, in which particular essences are conceived as things.

            And the principle of individuation through form, in sense of „act” is derived from a  personalist metaphysics of working , efficient being.

            In Romanian metaphysics of the ins/individual, on cognitive plan, it is given by  a certain configurative unity of features and by a certain key which deciphers the significance and position of events in relation to the ensemble of the existence.

            It is question of „chip”/shape, as originality of features of the individual; of „rost”/sense, as his significance in the world, and of „soartă”/fate, as his integration in time”. „On the other hand, this touch of positivism, of resistence of world and of things from it, which opposes their own manner of being, becomes evanescent in front of work of the builder, with creed that  „where God wants, it is wan the order of nature”.

 

Alexandru Dragomir:

„In Romanian, differently from other languages, there are two words of different origins: „a trăi”/to live (Slave) and „viaţă”/life (Latin), which make clearer what I want to say. It is right that life is a fact, namely one foreign from me, but at the same time it is a fact that life is lived, that can not be otherwise than lived. Only biologically, that is abstract, the life is a „phenomenon” like the stone, the triangle, etc., having, surely, the property that it evolves. But in reality, life is lived, it is something of kind of becoming, otherwise said, life is given to me in order to live it. (The ontologic difference between the being according the substance and the being according to the time is outlined , in totally other context, by Aristotle in „Physics”. Here is the joining between point of reference (the self) and the other side of me, the life. „I” live my life; not only that it is „given” to me to live (life as foreign from me), but life is given to me to „live” it”.

Teodor M. Popescu:

I must say a few words about Orthodox Church. Many judge it, accusing it that didn’t play a special role in the history of culture. Or, this means to don’t know its past, activity and influence had in ith East. Surely, the Orthodox Church wasn’t in situation of Roman Church, which had to take over in the West the inheritance of Roman Empire, but its cultural work is not at all negligeable. In a certain sense, the Orthodox Church made more for its believers than Church of Rome itself. In represented in the frame of state the most important and most venerable cultural institution, it has cultivated national language, has created an entire literature, has its art, has founded institutions of great social and national utility, has constituted a true school for people, has educated it, modelled its soul, insufflated a specific piety, virtues and morals which are the dowry of any Orthodox people. I consider that can be affirmed that no other Church made so much for national culture of people and especially didn’t developed to such extent the sense of Christian charity and love as the Orthodox Church. If we take into account the role played by Orthodox Church in the bosom of peoples, which, for many centuries, have been deprived of state organisation, we must recognize that it merits fully the name of mother of these peoples and of culture of these, which, until the XIXth century, was a medieval, churchish and monastic culture, full of faith and harmony.

 

Dumitru Staniloae:

„The first step is that of the beginner, who must endeavour to habituate with virtues. The virtues are in number of seven. At their beginning stays the faith, at end the love, preceded immediately by non-suffering. The love concentrates in it all virtues and passes tth man to knowledge or contemplation.

            The object of the virtues and of endeavours from the first step is also liberation from sufferings, its direct aim, the non-suffering. The virtues combating sufferings serve thus undirectly to the spirit, constituting a step toward next aim, wich is the knowledge.

            The second step is called of contemplation, althouh St. Maxim doesn’t use this word in unique sesnse, but gives it, as we saw, more meanings, according to object to which refers, but which, in general, is almost always a creature. Only rarely and namely then when he divides the ascent in two steps and not in three, we understand through it also mystic contemplation, which refers to god directly. But when he divides this ascent in three  steps, the contemplation constituting second part,  it means almost always exclusively contemplation oriented towards creatures. This contemplation has as object the”rations” from creatures. Through it the man possesses a spiritual sight of rations from created things, through it the nature is to him a pedagogue toward God.

            The third step, of mystical theology, doesn’t occupy any more with rations from things, but with those which refer to God himself, the object being the oversaint, overhappy, overunuttered and oveunknown godhead and over all, the infinity. This knowledge of God is an extasis of love which persists unmoved in a directing toward  God”.

„The person is the reality with highest degree of existence, because it knows about its existence and of persons and things. And it is so because „este”/is, like „eu”/I, like „tu”/you or like „el”/he, like a conscience directed to other conscience. „Este”/is of a person has such a great importance for me through the fact that it has the new form „eşti”/you are, or of a „tu”/you, that you know of me. „Este”/is of a  person is important because „este”/is an „el”/he, as existence conscious of mine, that it knows or can know about me as I. And my existence as person is so important for other persons, not only due to the fact that I am otherwise than other persons, but that I am an „eu”/I who knows about them, that I can be for them a „tu”/you or an „el”/he, conscious of them, or capable to know about them. The simple words : „sunt”/am, „eşti”/are, „este”/is doesn’t express yet  the mystery of person, but only their addition to the words: „eu”/I, „tu”/you, „el (ea)”/he (she).

            The stone, the plant, the animal can not say : „eu,tu,el(ea)”/I, you, he (she). Hence nor: „sunt, eşti, este”/am, are, is. Only man can say these words about them, that they are, but can not add to their names these words: „tu”/you, „el (ea)”/he (she). The man remains, in a way, himself, alone in the middle of them. „Tu”/you and „el”/he mean an answer in reference to „eu”/I, with which I indicate me. This answer can not give to me stones, plants, animals.And in such solitude, I am lacked of the complete existence, or in sure mode of intensity of existence. When I try to don’t have any more the others as „tu”/you or as „el”/he (which can become for me „tu”/you), I myself weeken in existence, or I loose it.

            Perhaps into an „eu”/I which habituated to have not any more at all a „tu”/you stays the hell, the extreme diminution of existence. In „eu sunt”/I am of Descartes and so much even we don’t affirm as centres ones for others. I am as joyful to say „eu sunt”/I am, as to be told by other „tu eşti”/you are or that „el (ea) este”/he (she) is. And only in this reciproc reference ones to others we exist each in complete mode. My complete existence I can not hence have but as personal supreme centre.

            In this it is shown the common being as living being, as being lived in communion by different persons, as being enriched through all persons, on measure of number of persons found in relation and especially in communion. But my complete existence can not give me but a personal existence, the supreme conscience.”

Indeed, the Orthodoxism, as Christian spirituality, must remain over earthly interests. Its fund is a revelation. Invariable revelation. The Orthodoxism can be clarified through examination of traditions, but not modernized in spirit of time. The mission of Orthodoxism is to keep, for ever, the teachings of Christ in their unalterated form. The românism/Romanian spirit, on the contrary, is the spirituality which gives to us the mean to go with the time, to modernize us. It is the fire which purifies our ethnic, in order to put this in measure to create original works. The Ortodoxism is tradition, the românism/Romanian spirit is vocation.”

„The merit of existentialist philosophy is that it has discovered the absolute superiority of the person face to the thing, to nature, to impersonal reality, be it even spiritual, and, in the same time, superiority of relations between persons, out of which she and you, in comparison with relation between person and thing. The relation between person and person is something much more generator of life, is a perfect relation, of a plenitude upto which it can not even to dream to rise the poor living which is tried by person in relation to the impersonal. Only the relation with other persons can make you to live completely your life, only it is capable to stir all your ambitions, sentiments; only conscience that other persons follow you makes to come up from your depths, which you even dreamt containing something, powers of creation or of destruction straight away gigantic. In exchange, the relation with a thing can not take out from somnolence and indifference in which you are plunged but tired, superficial vibrations without resonances in depth. If you appreciate however, often, with passion certain things, you do it for the sake of persons you know they follow you.”

 

Petre Tutea:

  „The Fascism is, as well as the National-Socialism, unreligious. These are ethno-historical explosions, but no religious… The Romanian right does not seem with these two forms of European right, being mystical-Christian… That is it doesn’t feel well elswhere than in shadow of churches and triptychs.”  

 

   „The autonomous man is illusory, because  either he is under empire of transcendence , and then he is religious, or is under empire of nature, and then he is materialist. Human autonomy can not be conclusive. ”

 „There are too great principles which struggle in an authentical consciousness: the principle of authority and the principle of freedom. I try to reconcile them in a sort of fundamental automatism of man in social body. The true organization belongs to relation between man and state, formulated juridically so exactly, in order to  superpose no one over the other: neither individual over state, nor state over individual. The true institution is but isn’t felt… Yet, not the individual is the source of order in the state. He is but only biological, that is physic. And spiritually he is the reflex of society, of community. 

In my time, it circulated a word: if someone untill thirty years is not democrate and of the left, he has no heart; if over thirthy years is not conservative and of the left, he is dull!… People live in the Tower of Babel because they are people. The human is not natural. It represents a biological mutation, consequence of the fall in the sin. And with all these, Christianly speaking, between Kant and Adam it is no any difference… De! It is regrettable that time passes. The efficacity of time pains… Untill now I swung, ideatically, between superman and noman… present in all tragedies and victories of this country, I feel like a pole in the middle of storm. The only hope is that, man as I am, God loves me also so… between human and nohuman”.

 „The man thinks predicatively or, more precise, propositionally and systematically. When he is autonomous, he puts neither on his affirmations, nor on his negations the seal of originality…

            The salvation is of religious nature, and not logical one. A concept is never exhaustive, because uncomplete is also the expressed object. The metaphysics is useless in front of death. Only the mysticalness is valid. The mysticalness is an  autonomously human speculation and that for the senses acquirred through metaphysical speculation keep of individuation.”

George Anca

Sursa: http://georgeanca.blogspot.com/

12 Feb
2012

Părintele Justin Pârvu

Astazi, 10 februarie 2010, Parintele Iustin Parvu implineste binecuvantata varsta de 91 de ani.


Viata Parintelui Iustin Parvu

Parintele Iustin Parvu este unul dintre cei mai mari duhovnici ai tarii noastre, din mila Domnului, inca in viata. Parintele Iustin s-a nascut la data de 10 februarie 1919, in satul Poiana Largului, comuna Calugareni, judetul Neamt, fiind cunoscut ca mare duhovnic si staret la Manastirea Petru Voda.

In anul 1936, tanarul ravnitor de doar 17 ani intra frate la Manastirea Durau. Dupa numai un an, in anul 1937, tanarul frate merge la Seminarul Teologic de la Manastirea Cernica, de unde va pleca, mai apoi, spre seminarele din Ramnicu-Valcea si Roman.

In anul 1940 va vea loc tunderea sa in monahism, iar la doar un an distanta, hirotonia intru preot. A primit hirotonia la varsta de 22 de ani.

Intre anii 1942-1944, Parintele Iustin Parvu este numit preot misionar pe Frontul de Est, in Neamt, pana la Odesa. El a participat, impreuna cu “Divizia 4 Vanatori de Munte” la luptele din cel de-Al Doilea Razboi Mondial, ajungand pana la Don. Dupa lasarea la vatra, el continua studiile la Seminarul din Roman, amintit mai sus. Dupa razboi, au inceput vremurile de prigoana a romanilor de catre bolsevici. In anul in care va absolvi seminarul, in 1948, el va fi arestat. Prigoana incepe !

 

Parintele Iustin Parvu este arestat pe motive politice si condamnat la 12 ani de “inchisoare politica”. Nevoitorul pentru tara si credinta, Iustin Parvu, va fi muncit prin mai multe inchisori ale tarii: Suceva, Vacaresti, Jilava, Gherla, Periprava si Aiud. Urmeaza apoi munca silnica din minele de la Baia Sprie, apoi “reeducarea” din Inchisoarea Pitesti. In anul 1960, Parintele Iustin este condamnat la inca patru ani de temnita pentru ca nu s-a lepadat de credinta.

Abia in anul 1964 parintele Iustin Parvu va fi eliberat, alaturi de toti ceilalti condamnati pe motive “politice”, ramasi in viata. Datorita greutatilor intampinate dupa eliberare, el ajunge sa lucreze ca muncitor forestier.

Dupa o vreme, monahul nevoitor Iustin este primit in obstea de la Manastirea Secu. Astfel, intre anii 1966-1974, el va sluji ca preot si duhovnic in aceasta manastire. Intre anii 1974 si 1989, parintele a fost preot monah la Manastirea Bistrita, unde i-au stabilit domiciliul fortat comunistii, sub supraveghere. In anul 1976, din mila Domnului, ca binecuvantare, parintele Iustin Parvu ajunge sa se inchine la manastirile din Sfantul Munte Athos.

Dupa anul 1990, odata cu Revolutia, cand s-a schimbat regimul politic, Parintele Iustin Parvu se intoarce la Manastirea Secu, unde sta aproape un an. Dupa aceasta data, el se retrage in sihastrie, cu gandul de a-si petrece restul zilelor in post si rugaciune, in isihie.

Randuiala lui Dumnezeu era insa alta cu Parintele Iustin. Astfel, intre anii 1991-1992, alaturi de alti doi monahi, Ignat si Calinic, parintele soseste in satul Petru Voda. Aici, el va intemeia Manastirea Petru Voda – judetul Neamt, pe care o inchina martirilor romani din inchisorile comuniste.

Manastirea va avea drept hram pe Sfintii Arhangheli Mihail si Gavriil. La ceva distanta de manastire, Parintele Iustin Parvu va pune temelia unui schit de maici, cam in aceeasi perioada. Astazi, se bucura de rugaciunile parintelui atat calugarii din manastire, cat si maicile din schit. Un azil de batrani si un centru de plasament pentru copii au luat si ele fiinta. In urma nu cu mult timp a inceput si mconstructia unui spital.

Pe langa toate aceste nevointe si osteneli ctitoricesti, Parintele Iustin Parvu a sustinut viata monahala si din alte schituri, precum cele de la Huta, din Bihor, Sub Piatra, Alba Iulia, Pestera Sfantul Ioan Casian, Pestera Sfantului Andrei sau Manastirea Sfantul Ioan Casian, din Dobrogea.

In anul 2003, parintele infiinteaza o publicatie de invatatura si atitudine ortodoxa, cu aparitie lunara, numita “Glasul Monahilor”. Odata cu venirea anului 2008, in data de 2 noiembrie, parintelui ii vine si cinstea de a fi ridicat la rangul de arhimandrit.

Astazi, 10 februarie 2010, Parintele Iustin Parvu implineste binecuvantata varsta de 91 de ani.

Scurt cuvant de invatatura al Parintelui Iustin Parvu

Un frate a intrebat:

- Parinte, Avva Varsanufie vorbeste ca in vremea sa mai ramasesera doar trei purtatori de Dumnezeu. Si daca asta era la 550 de ani dupa Hristos, astazi cati mai sunt?

A raspuns batranul Iustin:

- Trei sute. Caci la sfarsitul vremii sfintii nu vor mai face semne si minuni, ci vor petrece nestiuti si necunoscuti, in smerenie.

Sursa: CrestinOrtodox.ro

11 Feb
2012

ROMANIAN WORLD RAMAYANA

 

 

 

ROMANIAN WORLD RAMAYANA
Dr. George Anca
Abstract
It seems that through the 25th International Ramayana Conference in Mysore (November, 2009), one from wherever part of the world feels one’s identification with God as Rama faighting Ravana. Even ‘Hindu countries’ don’t include Romania, Ramayana is there much more than a coffee house with this name in Bucharest. Some correspondences are mentioned bellow both from general cultural references and from author’s fictional own ramayanic writings: heroes, polycephaly, Sanskrit Dacia, Rama from Carpathians, New York Ramayana etc.
From Ramayana by Sage Valmiki
raamo raamo raama iti prajaanaamabhavan kathaaH |
raamabhuutaM jagaabhuudraame raajyaM prashaasati || 6-128-103
While Rama ruled the kingdom, the talks of the people centered round Rama, Rama and Rama. The world became Rama’s world.
From Ramavataram by kavicakravati Kamban
Rama walked majestically towards Siva’s bow, putting even the lion, the bull, the golden Meru, and the elephant to shame.
They just saw Rama taking the bow in his hand and instantly heard the sound of the breaking bow!
From Ramcaritamanasa by Saint Tulsi Das
Men who devoutly take a plunge into it are never scorched with the burning rays of the sun of worldly illusion.
Names depending on the versions
Rama, Ram, Bhargava: incarnation of Vishnu; oldest son of Dasharatha and Kausalya; husband of Sita; fater of Kusha and Lava
Asamiya: Vasumati
Balinese: Ramadewa
Chinese: Lo-mo
Javanese: Ragawa, Ramachandra, Sri Rama(wijaya)
Khamti: Chao Laman
Khmer: Preah Ram, Preah Ream
Lao: Ph(r)a Lahmahrat, Ph(r)a Lamma
Malay: Agung Gempita, Seri Rama
Maranao: Radia Mangandiri
Pali: Ramapandita
Prakrit: Pauma
Tamil: Iraman
Thai: Daranoi, Phram, Phara Ram
Tibetan
: Ramana
Vietnamese: Chung Du
Sita, Janaki, Maithili: incarnation of Lakshmi; wife of Rama; mother of Kusha and Lava
Balinese: Dewi Sita
Javanese: Dewi Sinta
Kannada: Sittama
Karbi: Ita Kunri
Khmer: Neang Seda, Neang Seta, Neang Sita
Lao: Nang Sita
Malay: Puteri bungsu Hanyut, Chahaya Keinderaan, Sakutum Bunga Satangkai, Sita Dewi, Siti Dewi
Maranao: Tuwan Potre malaila Ganding, Tuwan Potre Malono Tihaia
Myanmar: Thida
Singhalese: Sitapati
Tamil: Shitai
Thai: Nang Piphat That Loi, Nang Sida
Tibetan: Rol-rNyed-ma, Zita
Vietnamese: Bach Tinh
Ravana, Dashagriva, Dashakantha, Dashamukha, Asura Vana: ogre king of Langka; husband of mandodari; faterh of Indrajit
Balinese: Rawana
Hindi: Ravan
Javanese: Rahwana, Dasamuka
Kannada: Ravula
Karbi: Raban
Kawi: Rawana, Dasamukha
Khmer: Rab(n), Rabana, Krong Reap
Lao: Bommahchak, Dotsakhan, Haphanasun, Rabbahnasun
Malay: Dauwichit, Gambar mahasakti, maharaja Duwana, maharaja Wana, Rahana, Raja Di Rimba, Rawana
Maranao: Maharadia Lawana, Maharadia Duwan
Mongolian: Mangus, Tesegiriy, Tisegiri
Myanmar: Datthagiri
Sundanese: Rawana
Tamil: Iravanan
Thai: Thotsakan
Tibetan: Ashapa, mDa’shagriba
Vietnamese: Trang Minh
Hanuman, Hanumat, Anjaneya, Anjata, Maruti: sof of Anjana and Vayu; monkey leader Balinese: Hanoman
Javanese: Anoman, Senggana
Karbi: Haliman
Khmer: Anjat, Anujit
Lao: Hanumon(e), Hulahman, Hunahman, Huonahman, Huorahman
Malay: haduman, Hanuman Kera Putih, Kera Kechil Iman Tergangga, Phalawan Udara, ShahNuman
Maranao: Laksamana (Mangawarna is the name of Lakshmana)
Singhalese: Hanumant
Tamil: Anuman
Thai: Anchar, Wanon
Tibetan: Hanumandha, Hanumanta

Polycephaly – Greek mythology

  • Greek mythology contains a number of multi-headed creatures. Typhon, a vast grisly monster with a hundred heads and a hundred serpents issuing from his thighs, is often described as having several offspring with Echidna, a creature with the body of a serpent but the face of a beautiful woman.-headed dragon that guards the garden of the Hesperides
·      Chimera – sometimes depicted with the heads of a goat and a lion
·    The Lernaean Hydra – an ancient nameless serpent-like chthonic water beast that possessed numerous heads
·      Orthrus – a two-headed dog owned by Geryon
Other accounts state that some of these creatures were the offspring of Phorcys and Ceto. Phorcys is also said to have fathered Scylla, a giant monster with six dogs’ heads, which terrorises Odysseus and his crew.

Polycephaly – Other mythologies

·         Balaur, a dragon in Romanian mythology, with three, seven or twelve heads
·         Janus, a two- or four-faced god in Roman mythology
·         Kaliya, a multi-headed snake vanquished by Krishna in Indian mythology
·         Nehebkau, a two-headed snake in Egyptian mythology
·         Orochi, an eight-headed snake in Japanese mythology
·         Ravana, the ten-headed King of Lanka from the Hindu smriti Ramayana
·         Triglav (meaning “three headed”) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology
·         Zmey Gorynych, a dragon in Slavic mythology

Romanian myths part of international culture


·         Vampire – See strigoi and moroi, which are more phantom- or wizard-like creatures.
·         (vârcolac)
·         Şobolan – A giant rat similar to the SA capybara. Rural Romanian folklore attributes the şobolan human Werewolfcharacteristics.
·         Solomonar – See Hultan and Solomonari, which were a group of nobles and wizards made famous more by the families who were members of the society then for their deeds. However, this is mainly do to the secret crusades of Christianity and their attempt to destroy all history and knowledge of these Wizards. Some of these names include Dracula Vlad, Solomon, Despina the Impure, Ty’ere, Ventruszch, Brohmyr, Izhain and Vohc.
Most of these names can be found in Romanian Lore in reference to Vampires and Dragons.

Personages in folk literature


·         Baba Dochia
·         Balaur (dragon)
·         Baubau, variant form Babau (similar to the Bogeyman)
·         Căpcăun (an ogre)
·         Căţelul Pământului
·         Fata Pădurii
·         Ileana Cosânzeana
·         Iele
·         Luceafăr – similar to Planet Venus
·         Moroi (a type of vampire)
·         Moşul (the old man)
·         Muma Pădurii
·         Pricolici (a werewolf or demon)
·         Rohmani (or Blajini)
·         Samca
·         Solomonari
·         Sânziana (or Drăgaică)
·         Spiriduş (a sprite)
·         Stafie – similar to Ghost
·         Strigoi (a vampire or zombie)
·         Uniilă (a devil )
·         Uriaş – similar to Giant
·         Ursitoare – similar to the Fates
·         Vasilisc – similar to Basilisk
·         Vâlva
·         Vântoase (spirits of the wind)
·         Vârcolac (werewolf)
·         Zână (fairy)
·         Zburător
·         Zorilă
·         Zmeu

Heroes

·         Ber-Căciulă
·         Doamna Neaga
·         Făt-Frumos
·         Ileana Cosânzeana
·         Greuceanu
·         Iovan Iorgovan
·         Ler Imparat
·         Luana
  • Baba Novac

Rama from Carpathians


1.                  There are authors sustaining that the Indo-Europeans and the Vedic culture started from the territory of Romania. Accordingly, Rama from Carpathians left it in front of Arian tribes thousands o f years before Christ. Striking arguments are brought about the identity between Rama and Negru-Vodă, founder prince of Valachia (Romanian Country).
Both names mean “black”, without connexion with physical appearance (see the symbolism of Red Emperor, Green Emperor, Yellow, White, Black, in Chinese culture and Romanian fairy tales). Rama is Chandra, the moon, Negru-Vodă is crai (king and moon). Both are preservers of dharma, exiled princes. Indian Bihar has a corespondent in Biharia/Bihor (in Transylvania), Ayodhya is Aiud. Rama and Lakshmana become Roman and Vlahata in a legend. A city (dava) Ramadava (Ramidava) existed in ancient Dacia (actual Romania), and a Walachian (Romanian) prince, Ramung, appears in medieval German Nibelungs epic. Both Sita and the wife of Negru-Vodă end tragically. (Gheorghe Şeitan, “Rama din Carpaţi şi legendarul Negru-Vodă”, paper sustained at the International Congress of Dacology, Bucharest, 14-16 June 2009).
Extravagant (becoming poetic/epic) chapters in books include: the celebrate Aryans were Carpathian-Istrians; the Vedas contain the spirituality of our ancestors; the battles of Bala-Rama in Carpathians; Ramayana describes Romania; Omu, saint mountain of Aryans; birth of Indra – at Porţile de Fier (Iron Gates); Hercules was … Indra; Geto-Dacians and Vedic people believed in same Eternal God; The religion of Getas – a religion of the Infinite and Eternal Universe; Budha moved to Dacia ( Da.ksa-Ţara Zeilor, Nicolae Miulescu, editura Obiectiv Craiova, Eugen Delcea; Da.ksa God’s country, Ed. Nagard, Veneţia, 1975);
Romania – the Pontic India; Rama from Romania; the saint language, Sanskrit, was the language of Dacians; the mountain Omu – the sanctuary of mankind; the area of forefathers – from Indus to Atlanta; Agni Tatăl (Father), the god of fire from Agni.Ta; religious conflict can lead to atomic war; the Vedas were born …at Black See; Ramayana storied by the map of Romania; Sanskrit – the language of the Romanians (Dacia – Ţara Zeilor / Dacia – The Country of Gods , Tudor D iaconu).
Some Romanian toponymics can be analysed through Sanskrit, e.g. Deva, Orăştie, Pecica (cf pecaka/owl), Agnita (Agni), Prahova (pravaha/flowing), Dacia (Dakşa/ country Da). Some Romanian words have correspondences in Sanskrit, e.g. brambura (bhram/to mistake), dandana (danda/stick and punishment), haz (has), rai (rai/good, richness), zvon (svan/to resound) (Problemă – Mioara Căluşiţă-Alecu, Ed. Orfeu, 2000)
New York Ramayana
abducted Seeta Rama / Lakshmana absent / not so Hanuman // predators of virtue / opposed to sandals / witnesses of killing // abduct me soul cries to god / abduct me bred temptation is translated / crush yourself on abducting time wheel
America is Ravana Seeta is the abducted / world Rama didn’t change himself / our mother is of godhead // dearer dear Seeta / is neither Radha in Vraja / nor Savitri resurrecting the dead // permission Krishnaits Savitrins / I pray to God’s Mother for Seeta / I pray to Seeta for God’s Mother
in study own salvation dance the goodness / abducted Rama himself in person of loved Seeta / Seeta salvating herself mountain and weapons // God loves also the one he kills / Bali the killed Ravana Vidu / dropped by foliage folklore composition // God kills also the one he loves / kills himself turns into resurrection / the beggar begs us to pass through him
Kali more Seeta more Mary more Radha / stringing our heads on thread from a / birth on forefathers’ darkness // lost in my death’s birth / I pray to you killing nascence / for keeping our hearts to spring // I bow to inconceivable overbelieving / in graces of god and of the abductor / loosing themselves in our growth
let Radha teach us forest’s way / Savitri pulling also us out / of cutted tree sculptured Maiastra // glory to mother’s cancer to father’s paralysis / for you to pray for their birth / we stick to you anonymous immigrants // prayer of prayers to mothers’ mother / to Rama to Hanuman / in the garden of Christ’s Mother
the will of receivers of abducted women / hidden by Ravana’s gardens / at once Ganeshan incompleteness // Ganesh in America should be the theme / the cutted time like tusk of Ganesh / the son in stories of ours // in Indian Ocean on Africa in Atlantic / in Thai also gulf in tsunami / Hanuman strengthened me in courage
arnam Brahma food is god / Sri Chinmoy played fifteen instruments / then silent meditation and dvds shared // dinner with roses on questionnaire I wrote / close to god through songs and / still more through resulting silence / pandit that a writer at phone // first time no then already yankee / in New York only for Ramayana bhai
global Ravanic terrorism / the old one makes pranayam at tea / dios del fuego black pyramid // with never a cloud in the skies / may every moment of sadness / prove only a joy in disguise // no one religious sum spiritual / spirituality unites religions / persons of divine revelation
there are animals better than humans / Ravana could have been killed only by monkeys or men / Hanuman embodiment of Shiva guru of the universe // neither I believe in god / this is god’s mistake not mine / his grace didn’t want to come into my life // without Hanuman’s help one can’t be Rama’s devotee / right guide monkey shape also Brahma could be / at coronation in Ayodhya all monkeys take human shape
no standing anyway but I am wet / after the cherries on Hook Creek / back Eldorado’s Lal with Lalan // under this bridge the woman gives birth to war // with sin toward peace Merrick past / rain’s cruise do not lean on door // I write myself Ramayana orthodox Easter / in gospel Seeta Mary shed magnolia tree / the girl gets down before library
electrified tables for computer / small girl looking to paradise’s dictator / Latin Gutenberg’s annotated bible // Quintus Smirnaeus The Fall of Troy / John Quinn The Man from New York / Iliad war Ramayana dharma // go in as much America you want get back / from secondary citizenship unslept sleep / reeding room as a stadium NYPL
Drago shoe repair extrogenius Dracula / by grace of god who is Rama shanti / seriocomic extreme the god of hell // rain by window of theatricality / flood over New Yorker Ganesh / his tween tusks went to the dogs // harder than New York neither pork I retort / girls left themselves on Archimedes’s / pouring on them golden ware from thunder
Pandit Ram Lall doesn’t advise Indians to come / in America no what to do here any talent / is bought home is more recognized // Chand colleague with them rich and how cold / any body how is nature is fair he is claming / seniority to me I am older uncle John Ion // all artists in the second line Sri Ram Tulsidas Valmiki / great men pandit’s dream to bring Ramayana in / New York Hanuman Chalisa sanathana dharma
divine aesthetics at sarod distinguished yogi Chinmoy / silence small conversations seem cries I still write you / whip of silence empire garland calypso // urge carry his sitar he leaves no applause / big word sacredness of the conference sin of difference / religious and communist zones materialist countries have no future // Ramaraja ideal love for people more than for self / Ravanaraja Mary put by pope to destroy nonchristianity / Rama in Shiva Rameshvara Siva param guru
at Ayodhya reigned Dilipa Raghu Aja Dasaratha / Rama avatar of Vishnu and more 24 solars in 19 cantos / from Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa to be pastiched with Manu / his son toward son serving Nandini heifer from Surabhi // on Sindhu he conquered husbands of blushing Huna women / thousands of camels and mares carry treasures received by Kautsa / beings lighted from sun lamp from lamp son from son / hand to the feet of royal duty milked sky // Indumati gives birth to Dasaratha thousands years pass / Ravana persecuting the gods then Rama from Kausalya / Bharata from Kaikeyi twins Lakshmana and / Satrughna from Sumitra reincarnate Vishnu
in the navy Pushpaka from Lanka to Ayodhya he shows to Seeta / Malyavat Pampa Chitrakuta Ganga Yamuna Sarayu / political slander on her stay in stranger’s house order / to Lakshmana to leave her on Ganges when pregnant // the sons Kusa and Lava taught by Valmiki Ramayana / to sing to their father at horse sacrifice killed Sambuka / he will receive Seeta back if she will prove pure / to her subjects she mortgages and her mother earth embraces her // ruined Ayodhya after death of Rama / Adhidevata calls in dream Kusa at reign / his bracelet slips in water Sarayu and naga / Kumudvati returns it together with her hand
(New York Ramayana – George Anca, AIME, 2005)

International Ramayana meet in Romania


Bucharest, Sep 22 (IANS) Romania has been proposed as the next host of the International Ramayana Conference, after the 22nd edition of the event concluded recently in the British city of Birmingham.
Romania, which is slated to join the European Union on Jan 1, 2007, has been the epicentre for European gypsies, who maintain that their ancestors originated from India. It is pointed out that there are some 8,000 Romani words that have Hindi and Sanskrit roots.
‘Romania looks for spiritual guidance only from two places, Italy and India,’ said George Anca, director-general of the National Library of Education, Bucharest.
Anca, greatly attached to the philosophy of the Ramayana, has been instrumental in setting up an Indian Library within the complex of the National Library where many researchers are working on Hindi and Sanskrit texts.
Former Indian president Shankar Dayal Sharma and recently Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat visited the Indian Library during their trips to the country.
It is imperative to spread the message of the Ramayana in different parts of the world in an age of ever growing violence, Anca told IANS in an interview.
He said: ‘The ancient message of the Ramayana continues to be relevant for the human race. It is not surprising that Mahatama Gandhi was tremendously influenced by the teachings of the Ramayana. If Gandhiji is still relevant for the world so is his guidebook – Ramayana.’


 

(By Surender Bhutani, Indo-Asian News Service | 22 September 2006 | 10:43am) 

Valmiki Ramayana is said to have been composed basing on each of the twenty-four letters of Gayatri Hymn, and a thousand verses are arranged into one book under the caption of each letter. Though that classification, or dividing verses into thousand chapters is unavailable now, the twenty-four verses identified with the 24 letters of Gayatri hymn, called as Gayatri Ramayana, is available and it is given in the endnote of this page. In tune with the scheme of Gayatri, Ramayana starts the first verse with letter ta an auspicious letter.  @ 1998, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised - March 04]
Valmiki: Ramayana
tapaH svaadhyaaya nirataam tapasvii vaagvidaam varam |
naaradam paripapracCha vaalmiikiH muni pu.mgavam || 1-1-1
A thoughtful-meditator, an eternally studious sage in scriptures about the Truth and Untruth, a sagacious thinker, and a sublime enunciator among all expert enunciators is Narada, and with such a Divine Sage Narada, the Sage-Poet Valmiki is inquisitively enquiring about a man who is a composite for all merited endowments in his form and calibre. [1-1-1]
“In valour Rama is comparable with Vishnu, and in his looks he is attractive like full-moon, he equals the earth in his perseverance, but he is matchable with era-end-fire in his wrath… and in benevolence he is identical to Kubera, God of Wealth-Management, and in his candour he is like Dharma itself, the other God Probity on earth… [1-1-18, 19a]
“That inestimable intellectual Hanuma on approaching that great-souled Rama, and on performing circumambulation around him in reverence, subtly submitted that, ‘Seen… Seetha…’ [1-1-78]
“When Rama is enthroned then the world will be highly regaled and rejoiced, exuberant and abundant, also rightly righteous, trouble-free, disease-free, and free from fear of famine…” Thus Narada is foreseeing the future and telling Valmiki. [1-1-90]
“While Rama is on the throne men will not see the deaths of their children anywhere in their lifetime, and the ladies will remain husband-devout and unwidowed during their lifetime… [1-1-91]
“In the kingdom of Rama there is no fear for subjects from wildfires, gale-storms or from diseases, and there is no fear from hunger or thieves, nor the cattle is drowned in floodwaters, as well… [1-1-92, 93a]
 idam pavitram paapaghnam puNyam vedaiH ca sa.mmitam |
yaH paThet raama caritam sarva paapaiH pramucyate || 1-1-98
“This Ramayana is holy, sin-eradicating, merit-endowing, and conformable with the teachings of all Vedas… and whoever reads this Legend of Rama, he will be verily liberated of all his sins… [1-1-98]
etat aakhyaanam aayuSyam paThan raamaayaNam naraH |
sa putra pautraH sa gaNaH pretya svarge mahiiyate || 1-1-99
“Any man who reads this lifespan-enriching narrative of actuality, Ramayana, the peregrination of Rama, he will be enjoying worldly pleasures with his sons and grand sons and with assemblages of kinfolks, servants etc., as long as he is in this mortal world and on his demise, he will be adored in heaven… [1-1-99]
“A man reading this Ramayana happens to be a Brahman, one from teaching-class, he obtains excellency in his speech, and should he be Kshatriya person from ruling-class, he obtains land-lordship, and should he be Vyshya person from trading-class, he accrues monetary-gains, and should he be a Shudra person from working class, he acquires his personal excellence…” Thus Sage Narada gave a gist of Ramayana to Sage-poet Valmiki. [1-1-100]
There godly sage Valmiki saw a couple of lovely krouncha birds, in the vicinity of that river’s foreshore, flying there about in togetherness, [and of course, fearless of any calamity,] and calling charmingly [1-2-9]
A tribal hunter with all his evil intent, as he is an enemy of foresters, killed the male one of them the couple of birds, while Valmiki is looking on. [1-2-10]
maa nishhaada pratiSThaamtva | magamaH shaashvatiiH samaaH |
yat krau~Ncha mithunaat eka | mavadhiiH kaama mohitam || 1-2-15
“Oh! Ill-fated Hunter, by which reason you have killed one male bird of the couple, when it is in its lustful passion, thereby you will get an ever-lasting reputation for ages to come…” [1-2-15]
“This utterance of mine has emerged out of anguished annoyance, and it is well- arranged with letters metrically posited, tuneful and rhythmical to be sung with string instrument, and hence, this shall be a verse, not otherwise…” [1-2-18]
Then, Brahma smilingly spoke to that eminent saint Valmiki, “But, what that is composed is a verse only… and there is no need to think through… [1-2-30b-31a]
“You shall narrate the legend of Rama, the virtuous, intellectual and an intrepid one, and a godlike person in this world as well, as you have heard it from sage Narada. [1-2-32b-33a]
“The adventures of valorous Rama along with Lakshmana, and the misadventures of demons, known or unknown in every detail, and even the plight of Vaidehi which is either revealed or un-revealed so far, and whatever legend that has happened, all that will also be known to you, even if it were to be unknown, as yet… [1-2-33b-35a]
“You shall versify the heart pleasing and merit-yielding legend of Rama, and not a single word of yours will be unfounded in this epic… [1-2-35b-36a]
“As long as the mountains and even rivers flourish on the surface of the earth, so long the legend of Ramayana will flourish in this world… [1-2-36b-37a]
“And as long as Rama’s legend authored by you flourishes…till then you will flourish in heavenly, in netherworlds, and even in my abode, namely Abode of Brahma… [1-2-37]
Discerning all of Ramayana in its actuality by his yogic prowess that highly intellectual Valmiki pioneered to author all of the legend of Rama, for Rama is a delighter of all in all worlds, and whose legend is abounding with the real functional qualities of earthly pleasures and prosperities, and which clearly elaborates the meaning of probity and its operative qualities, and thus this legend is like an ocean replete with such gems called thoughts, and an ear-pleasing legend, as well. [1-3-7-7-8]
“My mind is tumultuous without quietude for I have no sons… for that reason, I wish perform Aswametha, Vedic Horse Ritual… this is my thinking… [1-8-8]
Keeping Rishyasringa at the helm of affairs those eminent Brahmans commenced, ashva medha , the Horse-ritual of that noble-souled Dasharatha. [1-14-2]
The oblations addressed to Indra are well given as ordained, and the flawless king Dasharatha also crushed the Soma creeper to squeeze Soma juice, and thus the mid-day savana ritual has come to pass according to sequence. [1-14-6]
To that ritual of that great-souled Dasharatha masses of men and women have arrived from different countries, and they are all well-pleased with the sumptuous food and drink supplied. [1-14-16]
Day by day those expert Brahmans have performed all ritual works as encouraged by Vashishta, and others and as contained in scriptures. [1-14-20]
When the time came to stake wooden ritual posts, six posts of bilwa wood, six posts of khadira wood, and further the same number of posts of parnina wood are staked. One post of sleshmaataka wood and two of devadaaru wood as stipulated are staked. Then the distance between each post is maintained at the length of extended arms. [1-14-22,23]
They are altogether twenty-one posts, each post is twenty-one cubits in height, and each is decoratively clothed with each cloth. [1-14-25]
Carpenters have carved all the posts well, and built them strongly with octahedral surfaces that are smoothened, and thereby they are implanted procedurally. [1-14-26]
Those posts draped in cloths and worshipped with flowers and perfumery are irradiant, and they shone forth like the constellation of Seven Sages in the sky. [1-14-27]
The bricks for Altar of Fire are well designed and made according to rules and standard measurements. The Brahmans who are experts in the architecture of laying Fire Altar, by calculating the ritual field with a one-ply rope and decide where and how the that shall be, the Altar of Fire is layered well with bricks in that ritual. [1-14-28]
That Altar of Fire of that King, the Lion, is layered by expert Brahmans in the shape of an eagle with golden wings, with its size being three folds bigger than the altars of other rituals, thus it has eighteen separators, and fire is laid on it. [1-14-29]
In that ritual animals, serpents and birds designated to such and such deities are readied according to the scriptural directives. [1-14-30]
The sages have arranged those animals that are to be there in animal sacrifices, like horse and other aquatic animals, in that ritual according to scriptures. [1-14-31]
Three hundred animals are tied to the ritual posts, along with the gemlike best ritual horse of that King Dasharatha. [1-14-32]
With great delight coming on her Queen Kausalya reverently made circumambulations to the horse, and symbolically killed the horse with three knives. [1-14-33]
patatriNaa tadaa saardham susthitena ca cetasaa |
avasat rajaniim ekaam kausalyaa dharma kaamyayaa || 1-14-34
Queen Kausalya desiring the results of ritual disconcertedly resided one night with that horse that flew away like a bird. [1-14-34]
Thus, the officiating priests of the ritual, namely hota, adhwaryu and udgaata have received in their hand the Crowned Queen, the neglected wife, and a concubine of the king, next as a symbolic donation in the ritual by the performer, the king. [1-14-35]
Then the priest, one with controlled senses and rich in scriptural wealth, took up the omentum [fat] of the horse and cooked it as per scriptures while dropping into the altar of fire to bake as a food to the celestials. [1-14-36]
The king Dasharatha smelt the smell of smoke as per time and procedure to cleanse his own sin. [1-14-37]
Those remaining body parts that horse are there, the sixteen officiating priests have procedurally oblated all of them into fire. [1-14-38]
In other rituals the oblations will be offered into sacrificial fire with spoon-like sticks of plaksha tree, but in Horse-sacrifice ritual they are offered through the vetasa creeper, a rattan plant, cane. [1-14-39]
The Horse Ritual is to be performed for three days as laid down in kalpa sutra-s, the rules governing such rituals, and by brahmaNa-s, the penultimate parts of Veda-s, and the one performed on the first day is called chatuhSToma ritual. [1-14-40]
The ritual on the second day is called ukthyam, and the next one performed on third day is called atiraatra. These apart many of the preordained rituals are performed there in that ritual as envisaged in scriptures. [1-14-41]
The horse-ritual is conducted only for three days. But Dasharatha got it performed with more variously connected rituals, in all his eagerness to appease gods for progeny.
The rituals called jyothiSToma, aayuSi, and atiraatra rituals are performed. And also rituals of great kind like abhijit, vishwajit, aptoryaama are performed. [1-14-42]
As the promoter of his own dynasty that king Dasharatha donated eastern side to hota, western to adhvaryu, and southern to brahma. And to udgaata northern side is given in donation. These were the donations stipulated in that great ritual, ashwamedha, by the Self-Created Brahma from earlier times. [1-14-44,43]
“What is the idea to eliminate that demon’s chief Ravana, oh, gods, adopting which strategy I will have to eliminate that thorn in the side of sages?” Thus Vishnu asked the gods. [1-16-2]
Asked thus all the gods said to that sempiternal Vishnu, “on assuming a human form, eliminate Ravana in a war.” [1-16-3]
“Satisfied with his ascesis Brahma gave boon to that demon that he shall have no fear for his life from many kinds of beings, excepting humans, because that demon indeed slighted humans earlier at the time of bestowing boon. [1-16-5, 6a]
“Thus, on getting boon from the Forefather Brahma he has become arrogant and torturing the three worlds, and he is even abducting women. As such, oh, enemy destroyer Vishnu, his elimination is envisaged through humans alone.” So said gods to Vishnu. [1-16-6b, 7]
iti etat vacanam shrutvaa suraaNaam viSNuH aatmavaan |
pitaram rocayaamaasa tadaa dasharatham nR^ipam || 1-16-8
On hearing that speech of gods said that way, he that kind-hearted Vishnu then chose Dasharatha as his father in human world. [1-16-8]
During that time the great resplendent king and an enemy subduer Dasharatha is performing putrakaameSTi ritual, desiring progeny as he is sonless. [1-16-9]
On taking a decision Vishnu took leave of Forefather Brahma, and vanished while he is still being extolled by gods and sages. [1-16-10]
Then, from Fire of Altar Dasharatha’s ritual there emerged a greatly vigorous and energetic Divine Being with an unparalleled resplendence, called yajna puruSa. [1-16-11]
He is clad in black and red garments and his face is red and his voice resembled the drumbeat. His moustache and hairdo are soft like that of a lion’s mane. [1-16-12]
That divine person on observing king Dasharatha said these words “oh, king, you may know me as the being sent by Prajapati.” [1-16-16]
There after, king Dasharatha greeted that divine being with palms adjoining and said in reply, “oh, god, welcome to you, and what shall I do for you?” [1-16-17]
Then again, that divine being sent by Prajapati said these words, “oh, king, now you have obtained this dessert in golden vessel as you have propitiated gods. [1-16-18]
“Oh, tigerly king, take this dessert prepared by divinities, this is a blessed dessert that enriches progeny and health. [1-16-19]
“Oh, king, let this be consumed” saying so he further said, “for which purpose you have performed this ritual that childbearing will be fructified in your wives by bearing sons, hence give this among your eligible wives.” So said the divine being to Dasharatha. [1-16-20]
Agreeing to that the king wholeheartedly took that god-given golden vessel full with divine food. [1-16-21]
With high ecstasy Dasharatha revered that Ritual Being, the Prajapati Purusha or yaj~na purusha , an astonishing and delightful being in his appearance, and performed circumambulations around him. [1-16-22]
Then Dasharatha on entering palace chambers spoke this to queen Kausalya, “Receive this dessert to beget your son.” [1-16-26]
The king then gave half of the dessert to queen Kausalya, and he gave half of the half, i.e., one fourth to queen Sumitra. And to Kaikeyi he gave half of the remaining half, i.e., one eight of the dessert, with a desire to beget sons. Then thinking for a while gave the remaining, i.e., one-eighth portion again to queen Sumitra. Thus, the king distributed the dessert to his wives differently. [1-16-27, 28, 29]
On getting the dessert all of those best ladies of the king, whose hearts are exuberant with happiness, deemed it as a reward. [1-16-30]
Hearing those mournful words relating to the death of his father, spoken by Bharata, Rama fainted away.
Seeing Rama lying on the earth, has the lord of the earth, like an elephant crushed by a land slide on a bank where he was sleeping, those brother along with Seetha approached him from all sides and weepingly sprinkled water on him.
That slender-waisted Seetha whose limbs are flawless, whose complexion is like purified gold, and who is presently culling flowers is highly gladdened to observe the Golden Deer that is brightened in one flank with the colour of gold and the other is silvery, and she shouted for attention of her husband, and even that of Lakshmana who is presently weaponed. [3-43-1, 2]
“Oh, noble prince, come here,” thus she called her husband and peered at the deer, and again she called, “really come with your younger brother quickly,” and again gazed at the deer, and thus she oftentimes called and oftentimes saw the deer fondly. [3-43-3]
“Standing on the sky I can lift up the earth with two of my arms, I can completely gulp down any ocean, standing in war I can even put the Death to death. [3-49-3]
“Indeed, I can split the Sun and splinter the earth with my splitting arrows, oh, mad woman, I can assume any form as I wish, and endow any wish you wish, such as I am, I must be your husband, behold me.” So said Ravana when revealing his real nature. [3-49-4]
“Ultimately you have a much-lauded husband in me, as such you oblige me, and I will not cause any displeasure to you at any point of time. Let your heart refrain from that humanly Rama and you start bringing round your heart towards me. [3-49-12, 13a]
“Oh, halfwitted lady, you who deem yourself a highly intellectual lady, listen, that mindless Rama who just by a word of a woman forebode kingdom along with all of his amiable people, and lives in this forest where the predators are on the prowl, thus he who is spurned off from kingdom, ungainful are his purposes, and who is even a short-lived human, I wonder by what merits you are impassioned for such a Rama?” Thus Ravana spoke to Seetha. [3-49-13b, 14, 15a]
On saying that sentence to Maithili, who by herself is a nice talker and who is a proper one for addressing with nice words, that verily evil-minded demon Ravana maddened by lust drew nigh of Seetha and grabbed her, as Budha, the Jupiter grabs the Star Rohini in firmament. [3-49-15b, 16]
He that Ravana grabbed the lotus-eyed Seetha on lifting her up with his left hand at her plait of hair at nape, and with his right hand at her thighs. [3-49-17]
Then the miracle-air-chariot of Ravana which is miraculously designed to appear and disappear at the wish of its master, yoked with miraculous mules, and built with its golden wheels and parts, appeared afore Ravana braying noisily. [3-49-19]
Then he whose voice is strident that Ravana lifted her up by her waist and got Vaidehi up on the air-chariot intimidating her with bitter words. [3-49-20]
Agonised with anguish when gone into the captivity of Ravana, she that glorious Seetha wailed loudly for Rama saying ‘oh, Rama,’ which Rama has gone deep into the forest by then. [3-49-21]
Ravana who is infatuated with lust picked her up, which lady is disinclined for any kind of sensuality and who is verily writhing like the wife of King Cobra, and then he surged skyward and flew off with her in his air-chariot. [3-49-22]
While that lord of demons is abducting her in the skyway, Seetha became frenzied with bewildered faculties and then bawled stridently like a hysterical person. [3-49-23]
“Haa, greatly dextrous Lakshmana… oh, rejoicer of your mentor… you are incognisant of me who am being abducted by this demon who is a dissembler. [3-49-24]
“Oh, Raghava, you have relinquished your high-life, happiness, and riches for the sake of righteousness, and though you avowed to protect your observants, you are unobservant of me who am being abducted by the unrighteousness itself. [3-49-5]
“Oh, enemy-inflamer Rama, I reckon that you are an absolute controller of uncontrollable beings, I wonder why you are not controlling this kind of sinner, Ravana, indeed?” This is how Seetha started her cry in wilderness. [3-49-26]
“An honest wife of a glorious one who aspires nothing but honesty, such a wife of Rama as I am, I am being abducted, thus the aspiration of Kaikeyi and her kinfolk has now come true. Oh, god!” Thus, she soliloquised. [3-49-29]
“An honest wife of a glorious one who aspires nothing but honesty, such a wife of Rama as I am, I am being abducted, thus the aspiration of Kaikeyi and her kinfolk has now come true. Oh, god!” Thus, she soliloquised. [3-49-29]
“I pray you who are with the bustle of swans and saarasa water birds, oh, River Godavari, you promptly tell Rama that Ravana is thieving Seetha. [3-49-31]
“I also venerate you, the sylvan deities that travel in this forest with diverse trees or, those that abide on the treetops, you may please inform my husband that I am being stolen. [3-49-32]
“Or, over there, some few beings that are living over there on the ground below, I seek shelter of all the flocks of birds and hoards of animals, and I pray you to convey this news. [3-49-33]
“Inform my husband about his dear and loftier wife than his lives, saying that, ‘helpless Seetha is stolen by Ravana.’ [3-49-34]
“If that ambidextrous Rama comes to know about me, even if I am taken to heavens, or, even if I am impounded by Death, that great-mighty Rama brings me back, on aggressing against all of the gods in heaven, or, against Yama, the Death God.” Thus, she appealed to one and all, but in vain. [3-49-35]
“Oh, Jatayu, everything about my abduction shall be narrated to Rama, or to Lakshmana, as it has happened in its entirety.” Thus Seetha supplicated Jatayu. [3-49-40]
That prince Rama whom agony and anguish are distressing has become anxious in his mien, and he again drifted into a dire desperation while despairing his brother Lakshmana. [3-63-1]
“I am second to none among the blameworthy wrongdoers on this earth, thus I deem, and indeed woe followed by woe are getting at me in seriation to burst my heart and mind… [3-63-3]
“I might have definitely, habitually, and desirably committed damnable deeds in my previous births, and now the result of those impious deeds is very much ripened and has fallen on me, whereby I am entering misery after misery… [3-63-4]
“I am deprived of the kingdom, departed from my own people, mainly Seetha, my father departed and I am detached from my mother, and Lakshmana, when all these setbacks are very deeply thought over they are replenishing the haste of my agony… [3-63-5]
“All this sadness of mine has silenced physically and there is some peace on coming to these desolate forests, in association of Seetha, but with the dissociation of Seetha misery is again upshot, as with fire which flares up in a flash when fuel is added… [3-63-6]
“My noblewoman might be abducted by a demon, and on reaching the sky that lady who converses with a sweet voice might have wept a lot fearfully, and it is definite that she must have shouted a lot, untunefully… [3-63-7]
“Those two roundish bosoms of my ladylove which always deserved the application of pleasantly looking red-sandalwood’s paste might definitely be unshiny, as they might be bedaubed with muddy blood when they are extricated from her body for devouring. [3-63-8]
“She has a sweet, softish, and very clear talkativeness on her lips. That visage with such lips is crowned with a hairdo with hair lumped together and plaited, such as her visage is, it must have become unshiny on her going into the repression of demon, as with an unshiny moon when repressed in the mouth of eclipsing planet Raahu, it is definite… [3-63-9]
“The contours of the neck of that strait-laced ladylove of mine are always worthy for necklaces and chain-wears. The bloodthirsty demons would have indeed mangled that neck in a secluded place and they might have drunk her blood, it is definite… [3-63-10]
“While I was away from her in this uninhibited forest demons would have forcibly hauled her up when they are abducting that lady with broad-bright eyes, and she would have discordantly shrieked out like a piteous she-dove, it is definite… [3-63-11]
“Sitting very close to me on this stone’s surface, oh, Lakshmana, she that well-mannered Seetha with bright smiles was speaking to you verbosely with all smiles… [3-63-12]
“Among rivers this Godavari is the best and it is an all the time cherished river to my ladylove, and I think she would have gone thereunto. But, at anytime she did not go there, singly… [3-63-13]
“Or, that lotus-faced, lotus-petal eyed Seetha has gone straight to bring lotuses! Nay, that idea itself is incongruous, for she never goes to get lotuses, indeed without me… [3-63-14]
“But has she really gone to this stand of thicket which is with flowered trees and with birds of divers kind! Nay, that thought also is incongruent, because she as a timid one is much scared of solitude… [3-63-15]
“Oh, Sun, you are the knower of performed and unperformed deeds in the world, a wittnesser of good and bad deeds in the world, tell me, who am woefully writhing, to where my ladylove strolled, or is she stolen… [3-63-16]
“Oh, Air, whatsoever is there in the world, wheresoever it might be, or whensoever it might have happened, and whichsoever it might be, and whencesoever it might exist, that cannot possibly be unknown to you. Hence, tell me of the lady from noble heritage… is she stolen, or slain, or strayed her steps…” Thus Rama begged of the Eternals for locating Seetha. [3-63-17]
“Keep your intellect and wisdom firm, and express all your intents rightly in your body language in all your undertakings… certainly, a king getting into unintelligence cannot command all his subjects…” So said Hanuma to Sugreeva. [4-2-18]
Casting off his monkey’s semblance Air-god’s son Hanuma attained the persona of an ascetic, for that monkey is incredulous in mind about Raghava-s. [4-3-2]
“You two look like kingly saints, or deities by your build, ascetics with blest vows, but with ideal complexions… how come you arrived at this countryside scaring the herds of animals and other inhabitants of this forest… [4-3-5b, 6]
Lt. Tara came back in a trice fetching that litter of the dead, getting it carried by gritty and suitable Vanara-s. [4-25-21]
That palanquin is having a majestic throne and in similarity it is like a divine chariot which is adorned and beautified with figurines of birds and trees in high relief. From all over it is well set in with strikingly carved figures of foot soldiers, and it is like an aircraft of the gifted souls, namely siddha-s, with grills and ventilators. Well seamed-in are its parts and also spacious it is, and well crafted by the crafty craftsmen it has wooden play-hills carved in its walls, and finishing touches with a fine artistry of polishing are given to that palanquin. It is elaborated with best ornaments and strings of pearls, gems, beads and the like, and even with amazing flowery-tassels. Its cabin’s roof is covered with an ornamental woodcraft of red-sandalwood. It is well covered over with lots of flowers, and in its shade it is like a tender sun, while garlands of red-lotuses are further brightening it. And Lt. Tara brought such a litter of the dead. [4-25-22, 23, 24, 25, 26]
On seeing such a sort of palanquin Rama said to Lakshmana, “Let Vali be taken away quickly and funeral ceremony be undertaken.” [4-25-27]
Lady Tara and all other female Vanara-s, whose husband is dead, followed the funeral procession wailing in a pathetic tone. [4-25-35b, 36a]
On giving fire to the pyre procedurally, then Angada with dismayed senses performed circumambulations in an anticlockwise direction to his father, who is voyaging on a remote avenue. [4-25-50]
On cremating Vali procedurally those best fly-jumpers arrived at the propitious river with auspicious waters to offer water oblations to the departed soul. [4-25-51]
On cremating Vali of lofty aplomb and manifest-renown and whom the arrow of that Rama, the best of Ikshvaku dynasty has eliminated, Sugreeva then approached that Rama, who is with Lakshmana at his side, and whose flair equals a flaming fire. [4-25-54]
Then that enemy-inflamer Rama happily gave his ring that is shining forth with his own name engraved as sign to Hanuma, as a remembrancer for princess Seetha. [4-44-12]
“By this emblematic ring, oh, best monkey, Janaka’s daughter Seetha identifies you to have reached her from my proximity, without apprehension. [4-44-13]
On taking the ring that foremost monkey Hanuma kept it on his own head, and making palm-fold he reverenced the feet of Rama, and then that noteworthy monkey started off. [4-44-15]
That Hanuma the courageous one, the son of Lord Vayu, saw the great aerial plane standing in the middle of that building with a surprising hue, due to diamonds, and gems decorated by series of refined gold.
That plane shone like symbol for solar path standing in the aerial path obtaining the sky. Manufactured by Vishvakarma himself and praised by him as one without comparison in beauty.
In that plane there is not even a small thing that is not made with great effort, in that there is nothing without the best diamonds, those characteristics definitely are not in Devas also, in that there is nothing that is not of great significance.
Hanuma saw that aerial plane which rakshasas who were great eaters, with a face beautified by earnings, who roamed around in the sky and thousands of genii with round eyes, crooked eyes and wide eyes capable of great speed carrying it.
That Hanuma the best among Vanara warriors saw there a best plane with the name of Pushpaka with a more beautiful appearance than a group of flowers during spring, a more attractive appearance than even the spring season.
Hearing Hanuma’s words, Seetha like the daughter of a god, slowly spoke the following words, strung together with alphabets of tears: “You tell this (following) excellent thing as a token of remembrance to my beloved husband.”
“There is a place inhabited by sages at a hillock in the north-eastern It was bountiful with roots fruits and water. In that place, while we were residing in a hermitage of sages, on a day long ago, we were strolling in water in parts of groves with various kinds of flowers of perfume in that hillock. Your thereupon became wet and sat at my proximity.”
“O lord of the earth! For my sake you hurled a Brahma’s missile even at a crow. Why are you forgiving the one who has taken me away from you?”
“If the valiant Rama has any haste in my case, why does he not destroy the demons with his sharp arrows?!
“There is not doubt that I would have committed a great sin, for which reason those two brothers Rama and Lakshmana the tormentators of enemies, even when capable , are neglecting me.”
“O Seetha! Rama has grown averse to everything else, caused by grief towards you. I swear it to you by truth. When Rama is overpowered by grief; Lakshmana too gets tormented by grief.”
Then, untying the bright devine jewel for her head tied in her garment, Seetha gave it to Hanuma, saying that it might be handed over to Rama.
“Let me at least embrace this magnanimous Hanuman since in the present circumstances, this is all that is easily obtained from me.”
Thus saying, Rama vibrating with joy, clasped Hanuman in his arms who, master of himself, his mission fulfilled, had returned.
“Even before arrows resembling thunder bolts and with a speed equal to wind, dispatched by Rama, take away the heads of chiefs of demons, give back Sita to Rama.”
“O, king! Either Kumbhakarna or Indrajit and either Mahaparsva or Mahodara and either Nikumbha or Kumbha or even Atikaya cannot withstand Rama in battle.”
“The Ocean is not appearing himself before me on kind words. O, Lakshmana! Bring the bow and the serpentine arrows. I shall dry up this ocean, so that our monkeys can cross it by feet.”
“Being provoked now, I will shake this ocean, even if it is unshakable. I will force the ocean, which is demarcated by banks and agitated with thousands of waves, bereft of a boundary, by my arrows. I will agitate the great ocean, thronged with great demons.”
Speaking as aforesaid, Rama with his eyes made larger by anger and wielding a bow with his hand, became dreadful to look at, as a blazing fire at the end of the world.
Swaying his terrific bow and making the earth tremble by his violence Rama released the arrow resembling a powerful thunderbolt of Indra. (god of celestials).
Those excellent arrows having a great speed and ablaze by their splendor, penetrated the waters of the ocean, striking the water- snakes with terror.
The great jerk of water with fishes and alligators of the ocean, together with the resonance of the wind became very much dreadful.
Immediately that great ocean, became shaken by the cluster of huge waves enveloped by a multitude of conches in its rolling waves and a smoke came out.
Sea-snakes having brilliant faces and glittering eyes and the very valiant demons residing in nethermost subterranean region of the sea, were perturbed.
Thousands of waves, so large resembling Vindhya and Mandhara mountains, jumped up from the sea with its crocodiles and sea monsters.
Seetha saw the illusory head and bow. She heard Ravana narrating about Rama’s friendly relationship with Sugreeva, as earlier apprised by Hanuman. Recognizing that head as that of Rama, with a proof resembling her husband’s eyes, facial complexion, hair, expanse of his forehead and the beautiful jewel worn on the top of his head, she was very much afflicted with sorrow, cried like an osprey and abused Kaikeyi who was the originator of the present calamity (as follows):
Kaikeyi! Be a fulfiller of your craving! This Rama, causing a joy to the family, has been slain. The entire race has been destroyed by a woman of squabbling nature.
“You gave clothes made of bark to the venerable Rama and sent him on exile to the forest along with me. What harm has he done to you?”
“O, Rama! My mother- in-law Kausalya who cherished you tenderly has been left without a son and resembles a cow that has lost its calf.”
“O, prince! Why don’t you look at me? Why don’t you reply me, a wife who lived with you together since the time of obtaining me as a girl by you as a boy.”
“The strong and faultless prince Rama was killed in a small puddle, after crossing the ocean, for the cause of me, an unworthy woman.”
“O, Ravana! Join my head with his head and my body with his body. I shall go along the path of my magnanimous Lord.”
Soon after the departure of Ravana, the illusory head and bow had vanished.
“Beholding Rama and Lakshmana fallen under the sway of death on the battle-field today, finding no other haven and hoping for nothing else, the large-eyed Seetha will voluntarily seek refuge with me!”
Ravana the king of demons, thrilled with rapture, caused Lanka to be garlanded with flags and banners and arranged a proclamation to be made in Lanka announcing that Rama and Lakshmana had been slain by Indrajit in battle.
Then, Seetha beheld those two warriors Rama and Lakshmana lying unconscious on the ground on a bed of arrows, their limbs pierced with arrows, riddled with weapons, their armour shattered, their bows cast aside at a distance and their entire body transfixed by darts.
“Finding both of us fallen unconscious without displaying any joy or anger as also having desisted from fighting, Indrajit will certainly return to Lanka, after having obtained laurels of battle in its beginning itself.”
Thereafter, Rama and Lakshmana there became struck by a multitude of arrows of Indrajit. That leader of demons also there, causing affliction to both of them, roared with a thrill of rapture in battle.
Thus causing the army of monkeys along with Rama and Lakshmana to become despondent in battle, that Indrajit, getting eulogized by the demons, quickly reached the city of Lanka which was being protected by Ravana’s arms. Then, Indrajit cheerfully informed all that had happened, to his father.
Thus causing the army of monkeys along with Rama and Lakshmana to become despondent in battle, that Indrajit, getting eulogized by the demons, quickly reached the city of Lanka which was being protected by Ravana’s arms. Then, Indrajit cheerfully informed all that had happened, to his father.
After having been struck by Brahma’s missile released by Indrajit, Rama and Lakshmana became unconscious. Sixty-seven crores of monkeys fainted. Hanuma and Vibhishana, however in consciousness, roared about in the battle-front with torches in their hands, making a search of Jambavan. They find Jambavan. Jambavan requests Hanuma to proceed to Himalayas, by crossing over the ocean and to bring four important herbs, viz. Mrita Sanjivani, Vishalya karani, Suvarna karani and Sandhani; so as to bring succour to the fainted army of monkeys. Hanuma begins his journey to Himalayas and reaches Mount Rishabha, where the wonderful herbs exist. Hanuma searches for the four wonderful herbs. But the herbs appear invisible for him. Hanuma uproots the mountain clothed with the four celestial herbs and carries it along with him. Inhaling the odour of those herbs, Rama, Lakshmana and all the monkeys regain their normal health.
Then, in the battle-front, Rama and Lakshmana were knocked down senseless. The army of monkey-leaders fainted. Sugreeva, Nila, Angada and Jambavan could not understand what to do.
“This excellent missile, presided over by Brahma the creator, with never-failing strength, was given to Indrajit by Brahma. Honouring it, Rama and Lakshmana the princes fell down in battle. This not a time for despondency here.”
Then, the intelligent Hanuma, the son of wind-god, paying honour to the missile presided over by Brahma and hearing the words of Vibhishana, spoke the following words:
“Let us restore to confidence whosoever is in this army of energetic monkeys, after having been struck by the missile.”
Both those valiant ones, Hanuma and Vibhishana, together at that time of the night, roamed about in the battle-front, with torches in their hands.
Hanuma and Vibhishana saw the battle-field, covered on all sides, with mountain-sized monkeys fallen with heir tails, arms, thighs, feet, fingers and heaps of heads fractured with blood oozing from their limbs and urine flowing out. The earth was also covered with flaming weapons fallen around.
Vibhishana and Hanuma saw Sugreeva, Angada, Nila, Sharabha, Gandhamadana, Gavaksha, Sushena, Vegadarshi, Mainda, Nala, Jyotimukha and a monkey called Dvivida, who were struck down on the battle-field.
Sixty seven crores of powerful monkeys were struck down by the cherished missile of Brahma, the self-born creator, in the fifth and last period* of the day.
“Cheer up the martial warriors of both monkeys and bears. Heal Rama and Lakshmana from their arrow-wounds.”
“O Hanuma! You ought to go to Himalaya, the foremost of mountains, by traveling higher and higher over the large ocean.”
“O annihilator of enemies! Thereafter, you will see there the Mount Rishabha, the excellent mountain and the very much powerful peak of Kailasa, with a golden hue.”
“O valiant Hanuma! In the midst of these two peaks, you will see a blazing and unequally brilliant herbal mountain, containing all kinds of herbs.”
“O foremost of monkeys! Sprouted on the head of that mountain, are four blazing herbs. You can see them, illuminating the ten quarters.”
“You can see there, Mrita Sanjivani (capable of restoring the dead to life), Vishalyakarani (capable of extracting weapons and healing all wounds inflicted by weapons), Suvarnakarani (restoring the body to its original complexion) and Sandhani, the great herb (capable of joining severed limbs or fractured bone).”
“O Hanuma! Bring all those herbs quickly. O son of wind-god! Bring succour to the monkeys, by injecting lives into them.”
Hearing the words of Jambavan, Hanuma the son of wind-god was infused with animated strength, as the ocean gets animated with the force of the wind.
Standing on the summit of Trikuta mountain and pressing the foremost of mountains (with his feet), that valiant Hanuma appeared like a second mountain.
Then, increasingly pressed and bent by Hanuma’s feet, that mountain was not able to bear its weight and sank.
The trees on that mountain, pressed by Hanuma, fell to the ground and caught fire due to rapidity of Hanuma. Its peaks also got broken.
The monkeys were unable to stand on that excellent mountain, which started to reel, while being pressed severely by Hanuma, as the trees standing on it and the rocks got broken.
Confounded with panic, the City of Lanka, whose principal gates were broken, whose houses and town-gates were shattered, appeared as though dancing at night.
Pressing hard the mountain, Hanuma equal to a mountain, caused the earth along with the ocean to shake.
From that mountain, Hanuma then ascended Mount Malaya, appearing as Mounts Meru and Mandara, filled with several kinds of cascades, full of many trees and creepers, having Kamala and Utpala lotuses blooming, visited by celestials and celestial musicians, having a height of sixty Yojanas (four hundred eighty miles), frequented by Vidyodharas, a number of sages and Apsaras the nymphs, filled with various kinds of animal-troupes and illuminated by many caves, Hanuma grew his body, appearing like a cloud, bewildering Yakshas, Gandharvas and Kinnaras.
Pressing the mountain hard with his feet, opening his terrific mouth which shone like a submarine fire and frightening the demons, Hanuma roared loudly.
Hanuma went to Mount Himalaya, the foremost of mountains, embellished with various kinds of cascades, many kinds of caves, mountain-streams and summits resembling an assemblage of white clouds as also many kinds of trees.
Having approached that great mountain having excellent overbearing summits, he saw great holy hermitages, inhabited by a multitude of divine sages.
He saw the abode of Brahma the lord of creation, Kailasa the abode of Shiva the lord of dissolution, the abode of Indra the lord of celestials, the arrow-discharging place of Rudra, the worshipping place of Hayagriva, the horse-faced form of Vishnu, the shining place at which Brahma’s head fell down, the sun-god and Kimkaras.
He saw the abode of Agni the fire-god, the abode of Kubera (son of Visrava) shining like the sun, the spot where the sun was tied down, the abode of Brahma, the abode of bow belonging to Lord Shiva and the novel of the earth (containing the hole through which one can enter Patala the nethermost subterranean region).
He saw the gigantic Mount Kailasa, the rock of Mount Himalaya (on which Lord Shiva is believed to have practiced austerities and abstract meditation) and Mount Rishabha, the lofty golden mountain, which was highly illumined by the flaming herbs and the lord of mountains on which all types of herbs grew.
That Hanuma, the great monkey, having crossed thousands of yojanas, walked around that mountain, searching for the heavenly herbs.
Knowing then that somebody was coming in search of them, all the distinguished herbs on that mountain disappeared from Hanuma’s view.
In not seeing them thus, that great souled Hanuma was enraged. He made a loud noise in anger unable to bear it, Hanuma with his eyes as red as the fire, spoke the following words to the prince of mountains.
“O prince of mountains! Is it quite sure that you have not shown any compassion for Rama? If it is so, overcome by the strength of my arms; find yourself shattered to pieces today.”
Fiercely seizing hold of the top of that mountain, furnished with thousands of minerals, with its trees, elephants and gold, with the projections of mountain shattered and the crest of its plateau set on fire, at once sprang up with speed.
Having uprooted that mountain, frightening the worlds together with the leaders of celestials and demons inhabiting them and being praised by many aerial beings, Hanuma sprang up into the sky and proceeded expeditiously with the terrible speed of Garuda the eagle.
Grasping that mountain-peak, radiant as the sun, that Hanuma who resembled the sun, having reached the orbit of the sun, shone as a second sun (as sun’s image) in the vicinity of the sun.
In the sky, with that mountain in his hand, that Hanuma the offspring of the wind-god, who resembled a mountain himself, appeared mostly like Vishnu with his flaming discuss with its thousand edges holding his hand.
Then, seeing Hanuma, the monkeys made a noise. Seeing them, Hanuma in turn roared in delight. Hearing their awfully excessive noises the inhabitants of Lanka roared still more terribly.
Thereupon, the great souled Hanuma descended on that prince of mountains (Trikuta) in the midst of that army of monkeys. Having offered salutation to the illustrious monkeys there with his head bent low, he then embraced Vibhishana
By inhaling that fragrance of those great herbs, both Rama and Lakshamana became healed of their wounds then and there. Other monkey-warriors rose up.
By the fragrance of those most powerful herbs, all those monkey-warriors who were earlier dead were healed momentarily of their wounds, relieved of their pain, even as those who are asleep fully get up at the close of night.
From the day the monkeys and demons began to fight in Lanka, from that day onwards, under the orders of Ravana, all those demons, who were being killed by the foremost of monkeys were being thrown away into the sea as and when they were killed, merely or the sake of honour (so that their number may not be known to the monkeys).
Then, Hanuma the son of wind-god, with a great speed, carried away that mountain of herbs quickly back to the mountains of Himalayas and again joined Rama. (VI.74)
Placing an illusory live image of Seetha in his chariot, Indrajit along with his army enters the battle-field. Hanuma with his army of monkeys march in front to face Indrajit in battle. While Hanuma and his army are watching, Indrajit pulls Seetha by her hair and unsheathed his sword. Indrajit kills the illusory living image of Seetha, with his sharp sword.
“O evil minded one! Born in a dynasty of Brahmanical sages, but belonging to demoniacal race, you touched a lock of her hair, for your hair, for your own ruin.”
“O pitiless one! Seetha came away from her house, from her kingdom and from her huband’s (Rama’s) protection. What wrong has Seetha done to you, that you are killing her?”
“O monkey! After killing her, I will make a short work of Rama, Lakshmana, yourself too, Sugreeva and that vulgar Vibhishana thereafter.”
Having spoken thus to Hanuma, Indrajit personally killed that illusory Seetha, who ahd been sobbing all the while, with his sharp-edged sword.
After killing that woman, Indrajit told Hanuma as follows: “See, I killed Rama’s wife with my weapon. This Seetha is dead and all your labour is in vain.”
Indrajit goes back to Lanka and brings another chariot with him. He attacks the monkeys severely. The monkeys seek refuge in Lakshmana. Indrajit and Lakshmana continue a fierce battle with their bow and arrows. Lakshmana destroys Indrajit’s chariot. Indrajit strikes three arrows in Lakshmana’s forehead and Lakshmana strikes five arrows on Indrajit’s face. When Indrajit strikes Vibhishana with arrows, Vibhishana kills Indrajit’s horses. Fitting a missile presided over by Indra the lord of celestials, Lakshmana addressed a prayer on Rama and discharged it towards Indrajit. Indrajit’s head gets chopped off and falls to the ground. Witnessing Indrajit’s death, all the monkey-chiefs, Vibhishana, Hanuma and Jambavan applaud Lakshmana.
Thereupon, Matali refreshed the memory of Rama as follows: “O the valiant one! Why are you still carrying out the battle with Ravana as though you are unaware (of how to dispose of him)?
“O lord! You can employ a mystic missile presided over by Brahma the lord of creation. The time for his destruction has come now, as expressed by the celestials.”
 Then, the valiant Rama, who was reminded thus by Matali, took hold of a blazing arrow, which was given by Brahma and which in turn was given to him by the glorious sage, Agastya earlier in the battle-field and which looked like a hissing serpent.
Having been made formerly for Indra, the lord of celestials by Brahma, the lord of creation of infinite strength, it was bestowed in the past on the ruler of gods, who was desirous of conquering the three worlds.
In its feathers, wind was established. In its end-point were the fire and the sun. In its heaviness were Mounts Meru and Mandara. Its shaft was made of ether.
Provided with good shaft decked with gold, the arrow which had its body shining, had been made up of the efficacy of all the elements and an illuminating power of the sun.
Blazing like a fire at the time of universal dissolution enveloped in smoke and looking like a venomous snake, it was swift in action and capable of bursting hosts of men, elephants and horses.
Smeared with blood on having killed Ravana and thereby accomplishing its mission, that arrow re-entered its own quiver (of Rama) silently.
From the hands of the slain Ravana, who was being separated from his life, fell his bow with its arrows (fitted to it), at the same time coinciding indeed with his life-breath.
Having lost his life, that king of demons for his part, who was endowed with terrible swiftness and invested with great splendour, fell down from the chariot to the ground , like Vritra the demon when the latter was struck down by the thunderbolt.
Seeing Ravana fallen down on earth, the surviving demons whose king had been killed, were panic stricken and ran away to all sides.
The monkeys, who fought with trees, fell upon the demons from all sides. Seeing the killing of Rvana, the monkeys assumed a triumphant appearance.
That Rama, the delight of Dasaratha, for his part, who had just killed his enemy and thus who was steadfast in his vows and who was endowed with a great splendour, who stood surrounded on the battle-field by his own people and the army shone like Indra the lord of celestials.
At the request of Bharata to take back the kingdom of Ayodhya, Rama accepts the offer and sits on a seat. Bharata and Rama take their bath and get adorned for the occasion. Rama, mounting on an excellent chariot, sallies forth on a procession in the city accompanied by Bharata, Shatrughna, Lakshmana and Vibhishana. Nine thousand elephants follow the procession, with Sugreeva and other monkeys mounted on them. Some attendants and musicians with their musical instruments walk in front of Rama’s procession. The citizens of Ayodhya host flags on every house. Rama returns to his paternal palace in Ayodhya. Sugreeva orders four of his monkeys to bring water from four oceans in jars given to them. Some monkeys brought water from five hundred rivers, as also from the four oceans for the purpose of the ceremony. Vasishta along with other brahmins as priests caused Rama to be consecrated with that water. The virgins, ministers, warriors, merchants, the four gods as well as other gods sprinkled sap of all kinds of herbs on Rama. Vasishta and other priests officiating the coronation-ceremony adorned Rama with an auspicious and charming crown. Then, Rama gives away presents to the priests as well as Sugreeva and Angada. Rama presents a pearl-necklace to Seetha and Seetha presents that necklace in turn to Hanuma. Rama further gives away presents to Vibhishana, Sugreeva, Jambavan and others on the occasion. Rama bids farewell to monkeys. The glory of the epic is complemented in the end by Valmiki.
With which crown, long ago, Manu the emperor was adorned while he was consecrated and with which, the kings followed in his line were successively adorned while they were coronated, that crown studded with precious jewels, fashioned by Brahma at the beginning of creation and dazzling with splendour, being kept according to practice on a throne adorned with many kinds of precious stones in the council-hall, studded with gold, graced with abundant riches, decorated and shiningly made with most charming jewels of various kinds, and thereafter Rama duly adorned by that crown as well as jewels by the great-souled Vasishta and other priests officiating at the coronation-ceremony.
Rama the foremost among men, first gave away to Brahmanas, a hundred thousand horses and cows that have lately calved as well as a hundred bulls.
Rama presented to Seetha, an excellent string of pearls, furnished with superior gems, shining like a beam of moon-light; two clean and beautiful raiment and lovely ornaments.
Looking towards Hanuma the monkey, Seetha, daughter of Janaka, having taken off the pearl-string from her neck, repeatedly caught the glimpse of all the monkeys and her husband.
Looking at her, Rama who was acquainted with the gesture of another spoke to Seetha as follows: “Dear Seetha! Give the pearl-necklace to a person, with whom you are pleased and in whom the following viz. sharpness, firmness, renown, dexterity, competence, modesty, prudence, virility, prowess and intelligence are ever present.”
The black-eyed Seetha gave that pearl necklace to Hanuma. Hanuma, the foremost among the monkeys, by wearing that necklace, which was as white as a heap of moonlight-beams, shone brilliantly as a mountain silvered by a white cloud.
Having enjoyed the kingship for ten thousand years, Rama performed a hundred horse-sacrifices, in which good horses were sacrificed and numerous gifts bestowed.
That Rama, having his long arms reaching down his knees, having a broad chest and glorious, ruled this earth with Lakshmana as his companion.
While Rama was ruling the kingdom, there were no widows to lament, nor there was no danger from wild animals, nor any fear born of diseases.
The world was bereft of thieves and robberies. No one felt worthless nor did old people perform obsequies concerning youngsters.
Every creature felt pleased. Every one was intent on virtue. Turning their eyes towards Rama alone, creatures did not kill one another.
While Rama was ruling the kingdom, people survived for thousands of years, with thousands of their progeny, all free of illness and grief.
raamo raamo raama iti prajaanaamabhavan kathaaH |
raamabhuutaM jagaabhuudraame raajyaM prashaasati || 6-128-103
While Rama ruled the kingdom, the talks of the people centered round Rama, Rama and Rama. The world became Rama’s world.
The trees there were bearing flowers and fruits regularly, without any injury by pests and insects. The clouds were raining in time and the wind was delightful to the touch.
Brahmins (the priest-class), Kshatriyas (the warrior-class), Vaishyas (the class of merchants and agriculturists), Shudras (the servant-class) were performing their own duties, satisfied with their own work and bereft of any greed. While Rama was ruling, the people were intent on virtue and lived without telling lies.
All the people were endowed with excellent characteristics. All were engaged in virtue. Rama was engaged in the kingship thus for one thousand years.
In this world, whoever person reads and listens to this foremost lyric derived from the speech of a sage, which is endowed with righteousness, conferring fame and longevity, fetching victory to kings and as written at first by Valmiki, that person is delivered from all misfortune.
On hearing this epic of Ramayana and all the episode of victory of Rama, who was unweary in his actions, a person gets longevity to life.
aayuShyamaarogyakaraM yashasyaM |
saubhraatR^ikaM buddhikaraM shubhaM cha |
shrotavyametanniyamena sadbhi |
raakhyaanamojaskaramR^iddhikaamaiH || 6-128-125
This narrative is to be listened invariably by good people, seeking for wisdom, longevity, health, fame, fraternity, intelligence, welfare and brilliance.
Tulsidas: Ramcharita Manas  
 The storyboard of the RAMAYANA
from the book: Ramayana in the Arts of Asia, by Garrett Kam, Asia Book, Bangkok, 2000
The epic is so famous that some Chinese and Vietnamese opera troupes have a adapted it into their repertoires by selecting Ramayama characters from the great number of traditional opera roles. In Myanmar, temple carvings, dances, marionettes, and elaborate applique hangings portray scenes from the story. Variuous types of puppets, court and popular dance dramas, and temple murals and carvings are common throughout Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. It is common to find Ramayana episodes depicted next to Buddhist images stories in temples, as at the Temple of the Emerald Buddha in Bangkok. Of all the performing arts, however, nothing else can match the complete spectacle of the Cambodian nang sbek thom and related Thai nang yai. To the accompaniment of gongs, drums, and wind instruments, dozens of large figures cut from leather are animated by many dancers in the front and back of a huge screen lit by fire (even by a large cremation pyre) or electric lights. This clearly shows the close connections between dance and puppetry, for silhouettes of the performers are visible throughout the performance. From the royal courts evolved lengthy dramas with elaborately dressed dancers wearing fantastic masks. Even village groups adapted the masked dance style.
Perhaps nowhere else in Southeast Asia is the epic so evident as in Thailand. Rama is a previous incarnation of Buddha, and as the supreme monarch he is deemed faultless. Even today, it is against the law to insult the king. Since the current dynasty was established in the 18th century, Thai kings have been called Rama. Ordinaries Thais accord their monarch divine status, while influences of the epic permeate many aspects of s social and cultural life. Four of the Thai royal barges have monkey figures straddling cannons that are mounted on their bows, while modern naval vessels and aircraft are named after some of the characters. Bamboo rockets used during annual rain making rituals sometimes bear colorful cutout images of aerial scenes from the epic. Total destruction caused by storms as well as fatal traffic accidents that claim many lives are named after Ravana. Sacred Buddhist manuscripts often are stored in lacquered cabinets decorated with gold leaf illustrations from the epic. Traditional astrology is based upon characters and episodes, while some figures are invited to attend house purification rituals. Classical dancers pray to masks of the characters placed upon an altar with offerings before performing, and dolls dressed as court dancers are displayed in many homes. Techniques in traditional massage bear the names of hermits and their particular skills known in the story. Thai kick-boxers use fighting positions named after characters and incidents as metaphors of movement. Tattoos or images of Hanuman worn on their bodies bestow strength, courage, endurance, and protect against pain during bouts. On a more mundane level, images from the epic appear on advertisements, kites, T-shirts, calendars, coasters, postage stamps, telephone cards, matchboxes, and twice as collector cards in cigarette packs in the past.

IMPORTANT NAMES depending on the versions

Hanuman, Hanumat, Anjaneya, Anjata, Maruti: sof of Anjana and Vayu; monkey leader Balinese: Hanoman
Javanese: Anoman, Senggana
Karbi: Haliman
Khmer: Anjat, Anujit
Lao: Hanumon(e), Hulahman, Hunahman, Huonahman, Huorahman
Malay: haduman, Hanuman Kera Putih, Kera Kechil Iman Tergangga, Phalawan Udara, ShahNuman
Maranao: Laksamana (Mangawarna is the name of Lakshmana)
Singhalese: Hanumant
Tamil: Anuman
Thai: Anchar, Wanon
Tibetan: Hanumandha, Hanumanta
Rama, Ram, Bhargava: incarnation of Vishnu; oldest son of Dasharatha and Kausalya; husband of Sita; fater of Kusha and Lava
Asamiya: Vasumati
Balinese: Ramadewa
Chinese: Lo-mo
Javanese: Ragawa, Ramachandra, Sri Rama(wijaya)
Khamti: Chao Laman
Khmer: Preah Ram, Preah Ream
Lao: Ph(r)a Lahmahrat, Ph(r)a Lamma

Malay: Agung Gempita, Seri Rama
Maranao: Radia Mangandiri
Pali: Ramapandita
Prakrit: Pauma
Tamil: Iraman
Thai: Daranoi, Phram, Phara Ram
Tibetan: Ramana
Vietnamese: Chung Du
Ravana, Dashagriva, Dashakantha, Dashamukha, Asura Vana: ogre king of Langka; husband of mandodari; faterh of Indrajit
Balinese: Rawana
Hindi: Ravan
Javanese: Rahwana, Dasamuka
Kannada: Ravula
Karbi: Raban
Kawi: Rawana, Dasamukha
Khmer: Rab(n), Rabana, Krong Reap
Lao: Bommahchak, Dotsakhan, Haphanasun, Rabbahnasun
Malay: Dauwichit, Gambar mahasakti, maharaja Duwana, maharaja Wana, Rahana, Raja Di Rimba, Rawana
Maranao: Maharadia Lawana, Maharadia Duwan
Mongolian: Mangus, Tesegiriy, Tisegiri
Myanmar: Datthagiri
Sundanese: Rawana
Tamil: Iravanan
Thai: Thotsakan
Tibetan: Ashapa, mDa’shagriba
Vietnamese: Trang Minh
Sita, Janaki, Maithili: incarnation of Lakshmi; wife of Rama; mother of Kusha and Lava
Balinese: Dewi Sita
Javanese: Dewi Sinta
Kannada: Sittama
Karbi: Ita Kunri
Khmer: Neang Seda, Neang Seta, Neang Sita
Lao: Nang Sita
Malay: Puteri bungsu Hanyut, Chahaya Keinderaan, Sakutum Bunga Satangkai, Sita Dewi, Siti Dewi
Maranao: Tuwan Potre malaila Ganding, Tuwan Potre Malono Tihaia
Myanmar: Thida
Singhalese: Sitapati
Tamil: Shitai
Thai: Nang Piphat That Loi, Nang Sida
Tibetan: Rol-rNyed-ma, Zita
Vietnamese: Bach Tinh

Three examples of the different treatments

of a story depending on the versions.

1- Battle of the Buffalo
Malay: Cherita Maharaja Wana
A cow buffalo secretly gives birth to Dundubhi (Katibihara) in a cave to save to him form his father, who kills his sons at birth so as to remain the most powerful buffalo. Dundubhi swears to end the tyranny of his father and waits until their hoof prints are of the same size to ensure a fair fight. He asks the Dewa Empat (Four Gods; probably Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Kubera) for help. They empower each of his hoofs, and he kills his father.
Dundubhi challenges Vali (Bali) but denies receiving divine help when Vali asks about his strength. This offends the four gods, so they leave his hoofs. Vali kills the buffalo by twisting his neck, and foam comes out of the dying animal’s mouth, making his blood look lighter. Since Vali’s blood is white, Sugriva (Sagariwa), who is waiting outside for his brother, mistakenly concludes that Vali is dead,. He seals the cave with a boulder and returns to Kishkindha (Katakina), where Anggada and Nila (Anila) agree that he assumes the throne.
The Dewa Empat feel sorry for Vali, and in a dream tell him to cut off the head of Dundubhi and hurl it at the boulder blocking the entrance. Vali sets himself free and returns to Kishkindha. He finds Sugriva asleep with his three wives. Vali hurls Sugriva into the forest and banishes Anggada and Nila along with him. Sugriva weeps so heavily he becomes covered in a mound of his own eye mucus.
Thai: Ramakien (Ramakerti)
A celestial guardian bothers a goddess and is cursed to be reborn as the buffalo Torapa. Aware that he will return to heaven if killed by one of his sons, Torapa destroys all of them at birth. One of his wives secretly gives birth to a son named Dundubhi (Torapi). Dundubhi measures his hoof prints against those of Torapa until they are of the same size. He kills Torapa and terrorists others, even threatening the monkey. Vali (phali) tricks bundubhi into revealing the secret of his power. Dundubhi praises his horns without acknowledging the gods, so the deities abandon him and Vali kills him. Rainfall dilutes the dark blood and maker it lighters: Sugriva (Sukhrip) thinks Vali is dead and seals the cave. Vali cuts off Bundubhi’s head and uses it to break open the cave, then chases Sugriva away.
Khmer: Raamker
A ferocious buffalo king kills his own sons, so one of his wives hides her baby son Dundubhi (Dubhi). The buffalo king eventually learns about his secret son. When they meet, Dundubhi kneels in respect, but the buffalo king accuses him of cowardice. Angered by his arrogance, Dundubhi fights and kills his father, fully aware of what a terrible sin it is. Vali (bali) devises a plan with Sugriva (Sugrib) and tricks the buffalo into entering a cave. Dundubhi encounters difficulty because the space is too small, and Vali kills him. His dark blood flows out and desecrates the hermitage of a sage, who curses the person responsible to die. Celestial beings send down showers of flowers that make the blood look lighter. Sugriva weeps, thinking his brother is killed. The monkeys seal the cave it rocks. Sugriva returns home and becomes king.
Vali finds the entrance blocked, so he cuts off Dundubhi’s head and hurls it at the boulders, scattering rocks everywhere. He accuses Sugriva of treachery. Sugriva flees, with Vali in pursuit. Sugriva seeks refuge in the mountains where the sage lives, knowing that Vali will not go there due to the curse of death put on him. Attended by Hanuman, Sugriva hides and weeps bitter tears that flow like a river.
Lao: Pha Lak Pha Lam
A buffalo learns the incantation to become impervious to injury. He grows powerful and arrogant. One of his wives plots to destroy him. She asks him to teach her the spell for her won protection. Later, she secretly gives birth to as son in a cave but lies that he had a miscarriage. She teaches her son Dundubhi (Duorahbi) the incantation, and tells him to hone his fighting skills by using his horns to tear vines to pieces. Next, he has to ram trees and pierce the fruits as they fall. Then, he learns to fling away his own excrement with his horns before they drop to the ground. After he masters those skills, his mother tells him to wait until he matches the size and strength of his father to challenge him.
Dundubhi compares their hoof print sizes until they are the same, then challenges his father. He makes love with his father’s wives; since then, buffaloes mate with their own mothers. When Dundubhi’s father sees this, he fights with his son. Dundubhi injures his father many times, and each time his father retreats until his wounds are healed. Finally, Dundubhi kills his father by piercing his heart, but he has committed the sin of patricide. Dundubhi grows arrogant and attacks Kishindha (Kasi). Tara (Kottahrat) volunteers to fight, but because she is pregnant, Vali (Lichan) and Sugriva (Sanggip) help her. Tara is injured and falls to the ground; twin sons burst out of her womb. Vali takes the afterbirth and throws it at Dundubhi, who intercepts it with his horns, but he loses one fourth of his power. As Vali and Sugriva take Tara and her two-son back to safety, Dundubhi taunts, “You retreat with a woman, so you should wear skirts like her!” Insulted, Vali and Sugriva return to fight him. They fly up into the sky, but Dundubhi invites them down to fight in his cave. Vali cuts off the buffalo’s head, but rainfall dilutes the blood that flows out like water in which meat has been washed. Sugriva seals the cave with a boulder to keep Dundubhi inside, and returns home. Sugriva tells Tara that her husband is dead, but she does not believe him because he did not see the body. She goes to investigate and hears Vali calling out for help. They con not move the boulder, so Vali takes the head of Dundubhi and hurls it at the rock, which shatters. He and Tara return and chase Sugriva away.
Sanskrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Dundubhi ridicules Vali, who is drunk and in the company of women. Vali picks him up, twirls him around, and dashes him to the ground. He kicks the demon’s body away but it lands near a hermitage. The sage curses the person responsible to death, and for his friends to turn into stone if they enter the forest. Dundubhi’s son attacks in revenge, but Vali chases him into a cave and tells Sugriva to stand guard outside. The sounds of a terrible battle roar inside, and then torrents of blood gush out. Sugriva fears that his brother is dead, rolls a boulder across the entrance, and returns to home. Vali, who has killed the demon, frees himself and banishes Sugriva, who seeks safety in the forest here, the sage’s curse keeps Vali away.
Lao: Guay Duorahbi
Vali (Bari) offers a thousand pieces of gold to the one who can get rid of the buffalo herd Dundubhi (Douorahbi). His wife and younger sister Anjana (Kasiratdita) accept the challenge even though she is pregnant. She kills many buffaloes, but one beast pierces her eyes with his horns and rips her skirt to sheds. Since then, buffaloes have curved horns. Anjana gives birth to two sons, one of whom is Anggada. The people sew together the pieces of her skirt for her to wear, which is why Lao women make patchwork skirts. Blinded, Anjana lives under a tree with her mouth open upwards, waiting for fruits to fall.
At this time, a demon kills people with his poi9sonous hand. A woman named Gandharvi (Guandawbi) accepts a king’s challenge to kill the demon. She entices him with her feminine charms and agrees to become his wife if he dances with her. The demon follows her movements and kills him when she points to her head. The king is aroused to see her dance and has an orgasm. Gandharvi collects the sperm and pours it into the mouth of Anjana, who gives birth to Hanuman (Hanumon). One day, Hanuman mistakes the sun for a fruit and flies over to eat it but it burned. The sun sprinkles the elixir of life on the remaining bubbles of blood to restore him. Hanuman now is endowed with power and the ability to change into any form or size.
Meanwhile, Vali and Sugriva (Sanggip) are ashamed at their cowardice. They chase the buffaloes into a cave. Vali kills them inside, but rain makes their blood clear, so Sugriva leaves and becomes king. Vali returns and tries to kill Sugriva, who flees into the forest and weeps bitterly over his fate. He becomes covered in a mound of his own eye mucus, from which his tears flow like a stream.
India
2- Perfect Prize
Sankrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Janaka tells Vishvamitra, Rama, and Lakshmana that no one has been able to handle the mighty bow of Shiva. “If Rama can discharge the weapon,” he says, “then Sita is his.” Thousands of men bring in the bow, which is mounted on a cart. Rama easily picks it up, but when he attempts to string it the bow breaks in half with a thunderous roar. Janaka is pleased and sends messengers to Ayodhya to inform Rama’s family of the marriage. Dasharatha is overjoyed and leaves the following morning with the royal entourage. The wedding takes place with great celebration.
Malay: Cherita maharaja Wana
Janaka (Maharesi Kali) decides that Sita (Sita Dewi) is old enough get married. With divine help he creates an enormous underground serpent with a palm tree growing on each of its forty curves. The gods send down an arrow, and its sheath grows into a huge teak tree. Janaka decrees that whoever lifts the arrow and uses it to shoot the trees will win Sita’s hand, Janaka invites the sons of Dasharatha (Dasarata) to the contest but warns that an ogre, a huge scorpion, and a fire-breathing rhinoceros guard the way. Janaka takes Rama (Seri Rama) and Lakshmana (laksamana) with him, and Rama kills the three monsters.
Rama lifts the arrow and shoots it , but it pierces only seven trees. Lakshmana observes that the trees are moving and discovers the serpent below. He tells Rama to step on the3 serpent’s head while the pulls on the tail to straighten the trees, which Rama then successfully shoots. The other participants claim that they did it, so Janaka asks them to uproot the teak tree. Rama is the only one who can do it, using his toes. Ravan leaves and waits along the way, planning to abduct Sita.
Janaka wants to invites everyone, including the gods, to the wedding. He tells Rama to wait for him to return, and hides Sita among thirty-nine statues of her in the temple. DRama gets impatient and starts searching for Sita.
“Use a coconut leaf rib and tickle the eyes of each figure,” suggests Lakshmana. The real Sita blinks, and she leaves reluctantly with Rama and Lakshmana, fearing her father’s reaction. When Janaka returns, he angrily predicts their separation.
Lao: Pha Lak Pha Lam
Ravana (Ravanasura=Rabbahnasun) hears about the beauty of Sita, so the hermit asks him to lift his bow. Ravana fails and falls over on his rear end. “If you try to take Sita away, you will not be able to even touch her without feeling burned,” warns the hermit, “She is only suitable for a bodhisattva, a future Buddha.” Ravana is insulted and asks the hermit to lift his bow, which he does with one hand. Ravana plucks his bowstring that explodes like a hundred thousand thunderclaps. The hermit plucks his, and the sound drowns out the noise, echoing throughout the universe. The noise and hide in the lotus pond frighten Sita and her companion.
The hermit defeats Ravana in several fights, but feels sorry for the ogre, he creates Mandodari(Suddo) for him. “You will die if you marry Sita,” he explains. “Take this woman instead. The nine sons born to her will have great supernatural power. If they are wounded her body will heal them. The first and second only need to lick the tears from the right and left eyes, the third and fourth her right and left ears, the fifth and sixth her right and left nostrils, and t he seventh her mouth. The eighth and ninth have to suckle at her right and left breasts.”
Ravana still wants Sita and goes to her palace but finds it empty, so he follows the footprints to the lotus pond. He multiplies his hands to ten thousand and pulls Sita and her companions out. They cry for help, and the hermit plucks his bowstring. This startles Ravana and he dorps them and flees with mandodari. Sita and her companions run back to hide among the lotuses. The hermit calls out for them, and they emerge from their hiding place.
Maranao: Maharadia Lawana
Spectators marvel at the ball-kicking skills of Rama (Mangandiri) and Lakshmana (Mangawarna). Rama spins around three times as his rival suitor’s approach, and then kicks the ball up into Sita’s (Malano Tihaia) open window. She places her ring, handkerchief, and a small bag of betel chew into the ball and throws it down onto Rama’s lap. He takes out the contents and scatters the contents of the bag. Rama and Lakshmana leave as the others fight over the betel chew.
When the sultan asks to see the ring, handkerchief, and betel bag, none of them can show the items. Three days later, they return with three objects that they claim being to her. The sultan asks Sita to identify her items, but she finds none of them are hers. She asks her father to search the kingdom for her property. Finally, the sultan visits the old woman. He sees Sita’s handkerchief and betel bag hanging form the wall. The old woman tells him that they belong to Rama. When the sultan identifies the objects as the property of his daughter, the old woman hides because she fears that Rama is a thief.
The sultan sees Sita’s ring on Rama’s finger and invites him and Lakshmana back to he palace to begin preparations for the wedding of Rama and Sita. His wife first asks that Rama kill the giant serpent in the mountains, which has been blocking out the sun. Rama and Lakshmana return home to make bows and arrows, and find the serpent asleep. “It would be cowardly to kill a sleeping enemy,” says Rama, “When it wakes up, each of us will shoot one of its eyes at the same time.” They climb a tree and wait. The serpent smells their presence and opens its eyes, and the brothers shoot their arrows and kill the monster.
The wife of the sultan does not believe that the serpent is dead and asks for proof. Rama tells there to wait for seven days; during this time the body rots, emitting an over powering stench. The people cut the serpent up into pieces and throw them into the sea. The sun shines again, and on that day the marriage of Rama and Sita is celebrated. Several days later, Rama feels homesick and asks to return home. The sultan is concerned of the dangers at sea, so Rama suggests a land journey, a carriage is built and loaded with provisions for them. At the edge of the forest some men build a house and garden for them. Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana settle there in happiness.
Myanmar: Thiri Yama
Ravana (Dashagiri=Datthagiri) is only able to lift the bow as high as his knees, but he claims victory and demands the hand of Sita (Thida). Lakshmana (Lakkhana) easily picks up the bow, but he puts it back down for Rama (Yama) to try. Rama lifts the weapon, strings it, and fires an arrow with a thundering sound that disrupts Parashuraama’s (Bhazuyama’s) meditaion. Parashurama angrily descends from his mountain hermitage. He confronts Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana but refuses to accept Rama’s apology. After a prolonged fight, Parashurama surrenders and asks for forgiveness from Rama.
Khotanese: Ramakatha
Dasharatha (Sahasravahu) steals the cow of a priest, so that the holy man and his son Parashurama are reduced to begging. Parashurama does penance for twelve years, and Brahma grants him an axe with the power to kill kings. He slays Dasharatha, so Kausalya hides Rama and Lakshmana underground for twelve year. When the boys emerge, they search for Parashurama and kill him in revenge for their father’s death. While wandering in a forest, Rama and Lakshmana see Stia. They fall in love with Sita, and t he hermit allows her to go with them.
Sanskrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Rama and Sita and their entourage meet Parashurama, a sworn enemy of the ruling class since one of them murdered his defenseless father. He says to Rama, “Now try your hand with my bow!” Rama easily strings the weapon because it belongs to Vishnu and points the arrow at Parashurama, who begs for forgiveness. As the arrow must have a target, Parashurama offers his magical vision. After arriving home, Bharata, accompanied by Shatrughna, leaves soon after to spend time with his grandparent. 
Singapore
3- The Sorrow of Separation                                                             
Sanskrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Sita sees Jatayu and screams for help. The bird shouts, “The wife of another must be protected as one’s own!” The aerial battle of Ravana and Jatayu is like the collision of flying mountains. Ravana cuts off Jatayu’s wings and speeds off to Langka. While in to air, Sita spots five monkeys below, removes her jewels and bundles them in her shawl, and throws the parcel down to teem. Ravana puts Sita in his palace chambers. “Be my wife and enjoy life. If you do not accept me in twelve months, I will eat you for breakfast!” threatens Ravana. “By then nothing will be left of me,” Sita replies. The ogresses to take Sita to a rove. Indra descends from heaven and puts the female attendants to sleep. He lets Sita see that his feet do not touch the ground, and that his eyes do not blink. “Eat this celestial food and you will never feel hungry, thirsty, or tired,” he tells her.
Meanwhile Rama and Lakshmana find Sita missing. By observing the movements of animals, they turn their search towards the south. Soon they find broken weapons, parts of a chariot, and blood. Rama threatens to destroy the universe. “You can not punish all of creation for the sin of one person,” advises Lakshmana. When they find Jatayu, Rama suspects him and rushes up to kill the bird. With his dying breath, Jatayu explains the events. Rama throws his weapon aside and embraces the bird, which soon dies. Rama performs the cremation rites.
An ogress tries t o abducts Lakshmana and suffers the same mutilation as Shurpanakha. Kabandha, a headless ogre with its face on its belly, catches Rama and Lakshmana in his long arms. They cut themselves free and kill him. Released from a curse, the ogre turns back into a celestial being. Kabandha says, “One way to overcome hardship is to find someone in a similar situation. A monkey named Sugriva has been deprived of his kingdom and wife. Help him regain the throne, and he will help you rescue Sita.” Kabandha returns to heaven, and Rama and Lakshmana follow his advice. They meet Shabari, a female ascetic who points the way to Sugriva’s dwelling. She then enters the sacrificial fire and ascends to paradise.
Tamil: Kamban Iramavataram
Jatayu (Chatayu) tries to rescue Sita (Shitai) and estroys Ravana’s (Iravanan’s) chariot. Ravana cuts off the bird’s wings and continues on to Langka (Langkai) by foot. Rama (Iraman) and Lakshmana (Ilakkumanan) find Jatayu. When the bird dies, Rama cremates him. Lakshmana goes to find some water for Rama. An ogress falls in love with him and carries him off, but Lakshmana cuts off her ears and nose.
Khmer: Reamker
Sita calls out for an egret to tell Rama (Ram) of her abduction. Then Jatayu sees Ravana (Rab) and they battle. Their clash makes sounds like thunder. The bird destroys Ravana’s chariot, but the ogre hurls Sita’s ring at Jatayu, breaking his wings. Meanwhile, lakshmana(Laksm) and Rama meet jatayu. Rama promises the bird a place in heaven. Jatayu dies and Rama performs the cremation. When Kabandha (Kumbhanda) seizes Rama, he breaks off the ogre’s fangs and Lakshmana helps to destroy him. The egret tells Rama and Lakahmana of Sita’s abduction, but they get annoyed that he egret will spread the news. “Spare my life, and in the future I will fly three times around the palace of Langka to bring about its ruin,” pleads the bird.
Thai: Ramakian (Ramakerti)
Jatayu (Sadayu) boasts to Ravana (Dashakantha=Thotsakna) that the ring of Sita (Sida) is the most powerful weapon. Ravana throws it at the bird, cutting his wings. Jatayu falls to earth with the ring in his beak. Sita throws down her shawl to a group of monkeys. Meanwhile, Rama (Ram) and Lakshmana (Lak) find Jatayu, who presents Sita’s ring and gives up his soul. Rama cremates the grid with llaming arrows.
Malay: Cherita Maharaja Wana, Hikayat Seri Rama
Ravana (Maharaja Wana) tricks Jatayu (Jentayu) into revealing that his life force is in his wings and cuts them off. Sita asks to speak to the wounded bird and places her ring in his beak. As Ramana carries her off, she tears up her shawl and casts bits of it down as a trail. Meanwhile, Rama (Seri Rama) and Lakshmana (Laksamana) find some salty tasting water. It leads them to the dying Jatayu. Rama takes the ring from his beak and Jatayu dies. They bury him and them come across the trail made by Sita’s shawl.
Malay: wayang kulit Siam
Ravana and Jatayu collide in the sky, which breaks the bird’s wings. Ravana deposits the white swallow that is Sita’s soul with a demon. Without her soul, Sita stays awake all the time. Ravana is unable to touch her because when he tries, blood comes out from his pores. Meanwhile, Rama and Lakhsmana follow a foul smelling stream and find Jatayu. Rama cremates the bird by holding the body in his arms, because the ground for the pyre of such a noble creature must be pure and never stepped on.
Lao: Pha lak Pha Lam
Finding Sita missing, Rama (Lam) wants to kill Lakshmana (Lak) but the flying horse Kaustabhamani (Mahnikap) stops him. Rama orders Lakshmana to make a fire for cooking, but is puzzled when he burns only one stick at a time. “You are like this piece of wood, consumed with flaming anger when you tried to kill me,” explains Lakshmana, “You would have been alone and powerless. We must work together, just as a good fire is made from a bundle of sticks.” Rama sees the wisdom in this.
Rama and Lakshmana mount the flying horse and being their search for Sita. Three goddesses change themselves to look like Sita, but Rama knows that they are illusions. When Rama asks to see the real Sita, Kaustabhamani recites a spell that makes Ravana (Ravanasun=Rabbahnasun) and the stone figure ring her back. While they are flying through the sky, the garuda (gut) bird expands his wings to hide the sun, creating darkness everywhere. Unable to see, Ravana wanders about.
Laughing at his confusion, the bird boasts, “only the ring of Rama is stronger than me!” Hearing this, Ramana takes Rama’s ring from Sita’s finger and throws it as garuda, cutting his wings and making the sky bright again. With Kaustabhamani’s spell also broken, Ravana returns to Langka with Sita. The tow brothers find the injured bird. Rama recites an incantation and blows his breath on garuda, healing his damaged wings. The bird promises to help Rama and flies away.
Japanese: Hobutsushu
In a path between two hills, a huge bird tries to block the sage who is abducting the wife of the bodhisattva king. The sage resumes his form as a dragon and fights the bird, breaking his wings with lightning bolts. He continues on with the queen to his island home. Meanwhile, the bodhisattva king finds his wife missing. He searches for her and finds the wounded bird that tells him of the abduction with his last breath. The king buries the bird at the top of a mountain and goes to the south to find the dragon king.
Malay: Syair Agung
Rama (Agung Gempita) searches for Sita (Chahaya Keinderaan) alone but gives Lakshmana (Halam Gempita) a ring with a white stone ring that will turn red if he is in danger. With an arrow, Rama creates a flying green horse. He pauses to rest under a tree, not knowing that a family of three ghosts lives there. Their ugly daughter is infatuated with Rama, but he spurns her. They torture Rama until he falls unconscious.
The stone on Lakshmana’s ring turns red. Realizing that Rama is in danger, he creates a flying white horse with his sword and goes to find him. He rests under a tree inhabited by three monkeys who are cursed celestial beings. They know that Lakshmana can set them free. Lakshmana overhears them and climbs up. But his sword falls out and beheads the three monkeys. They turn back into a god, goddess, and their daughter. The god and goddess give Lakshmana a magical ring and arrow. They change their daughter into a man named Hanuman (Pahlawan Udara, Wind Warrior) and give him a flying horse.
Meanwhile, the three ghosts threaten to burn Rama in a hole, but Shiva (Gangga Sakti) takes Rama to heaven and revives him, then makes him invulnerable. Shiva returns Rama to earth and gives him a magical gemstone to call the god for help, and a ring that can grant any wish. Rama resumes his search for Sita and meets Lakshmana and Hanuman. They kill the three ghosts, who are released from their curse and return to heaven. Rama, Lakshmana, and Hanuman continue their search for Sita.
 

* Zurich | 14/05/2009 – 03/05/2009 The Love Story continues Rama and Sita in the Park-Villa Rieter
Exhibition about the Ramayana, an ancient Sanskrit epic that is considered to be the oldest and longest epic in world literature. On show are 65 exhibits selected from collection of the Museum Rietberg, telling the story of the Sanskrit-Saga. The Ramayana originally written by the poet Valmiki, and compiled between approximately 400 BCE and 200 CE, consists of 24,000 verses in six cantos. The Ramayana tells the story of a prince, Rama of Ayodhya, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. Rama is the hero of this tale and he is portrayed as an incarnation of the god Vishnu. He is the eldest and the favorite son of the King of Ayodhya, Dasaratha. The Ramayana follows the life of Rama and his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana and even today is a very important part of Indian mythology and culture. 
Rama and his court watch Sita undergoing fire ordeal (Thai Ramayana mural)
Rama and his court watch Sita during the fire ordeal, as seen on a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple.
Sita stands calmly in a gated area with flames burning around the lotus blossom platform on which she stands. One of the monkey kings lights the fire with a torch in front, while Rama and his courtiers watch the spectacle from a royal pavillion at right.
After being separated from Sita for many years during her capture by Ravana, Rama is unsure of his wife’s fidelity. In order to prove that she has been faithful, Sita willingly undergoes an ordeal, or trial by fire.
In ancient South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe (not to mention colonial America), it was thought that the innocence of an accused criminal could be proven if they survived some kind of extreme physical torture such as burning or drowning.
In some versions of the Ramayana, it is said that lotus flowers sprouted at Sita’s feet to protect her from the fire, or that not a flower petal in her hair was faded by the fire because the gods, who knew she was pure of heart, protected her completely.
In contemporary Southeast Asian fiction, the story of Rama and Sita is often retold to highlight a double standard for men versus women: that women are supposed to prove their faithfulness to men, but the behavior of absent men is never questioned. Some contemporary Southeast Asian women dislike the character of Rama, seeing him less as a hero whose valor should be modelled by men today than an old-fashioned man who did not treat his innocent wife properly when she returned to him.
This image was photographed in August 1984. 

Gheorghe Şeitan: „Rama din Carpaţi şi legendarul Negru-Vodă“

Nu există neam pe pământ care să nu aibă un stramoş comun, un fondator al ţarii, ori al cetaţii-capitale, un erou mitic, anistoric, de la care regii sau prinţii trăitori în istoria concretă sa se revendice (1).
Aşa a fost prinţul Tezeu pentru cetatea Atena, Enea pentru poporul roman, Romulus – întemeietorul mitic al Romei, Huang-Di – Împaratul Galben pentru chineji, Scites – suveranul legendar al sciţilor şi tot astfel Negru-Vodă pentru valahii Munteniei .
Iar ca să-l înţelegem pe acest mitic Negru-Vodă trebuie, mai întâi să mergem în orient, unde şi astăzi mai există regate, ori case princiare ai căror conducători se revendică din prinţul Rama- eroul epopeii hinduse Ramayana.
Este cazul Thailandei, unde actualul suveran este Rama al IX-lea, precum şi unele state din istoria mai apropiată ori mai îndepărtată a Indiei : Rama-Gupta, un suveran din timpul imperiului Gupta; Rama-Raya, împărat în imperiul Vijaya-nagar; Rama-Chandra, conducător din  dinastia Yadava; Rama-Raya, rege în statul Maratha şi exemplele ar putea continua (2).
Facem precizarea că, potrivit celor mai autorizati exegeţi în indianistică, numele prinţului, Rama, înseamnă cel care se odihneşte, cel care aduce pacea, cel bun, cel plăcut, cel fermecător, cel drag, cel frumos, si nu în ultimul rând, cel negru (3).
Potrivit concepţiei brahmanice asupra universului, regele  era de natură divina, fiind reprezentantul pe pământ al zeului Vishnu şi prin urmare, Rama- unul dintre avatara lui Vishnu - este simbolul regelui ideal şi model de guvernare statală.
Vrem să arătăm prin aceasta că, într-o societate în care predomină legea vedico-buddhistă, existenţa unor conducători statali care îl recunosc pe Rama, adică pe Negrul, ca fiind prinţul întemeietor, este ceva normal.
Or tocmai despre faptul că Romînia a fost teritoriul matca al indo-europenilor şi locul de formare a culturii vedice s-a scris nu odată şi nu fără argumente (4).
Există chiar o bogată literatură despre Rama din Carpaţi, plecat cu multe mii de ani înainte de Hristos, în fruntea triburilor arice, din pădurile hiperboreilor geti.
Prin urmare a căuta o Ramayană carpato-dunareană în cultura română, nu facem decât să prelungim mai departe idei exprimate deja.
Ceea ce nu s-a arătat până acum şi vrem să demonstrăm în cele ce urmează sunt firele nevăzute care leagă pe Rama din Carpaţi de Negru -Vodă, întemeietorul, din cronicile şi legendele românilor.
Identitatea dintre Rama şi Negru-Vodă se realizează, în primul rând, la nivel semantic, pentru că Rama, în traducere înseamnă negrul.
Mai mulţi istorici care s-au ocupat de istoricitatea lui Negru-Vodă au încercat să vadă aici o porecla, ori o anume negritudine a personajului, fie a carnaţiei, fie a părului.
Rama şi Negru-Vodă provin însă dintr-un univers cu structură simbolică, în care numele culorii nu trebuie luat ad-literam, negrul semnificând de cele mai multe ori primordialitatea, ceea ce este propiu dinaştilor întemeietori.
În mandalele hinduse fiecărei direcţii a spaţiului îi corespunde o anume culoare şi un anume guvernator.Există o simbolică a culorilor împaraţilor în cultura chineză şi în basmele romînilor, precum Împăratul Roşu, Împăratul Verde, Galben, Alb, Negrul. Prin urmare atît Rama cît şi Negru-Vodă au primit aceste nume fără vreo legătură cu un atribut fizic.
În al doilea rând, după cum Rama este Chandra, adică Luna (Rama-Chandra) tot astfel Negru-Vodă este craiul.În limba română, cuvîntul crai desemnează atît prinţul conducător de ţară ori ţinut, aşa cum apare el in letopiseţe sau în basme, cât şi astrul nopţii, Luna.Se spune Crai-Nou la luna aflată în acea fază a ei în care apare ca o seceră, numite şi coarne lunare.
Pare neverosimil ca Rama, prinţ din dinastia solară să fie numit Chandra, adica Luna sau craiul .În cazul lui Negru-Vodă, însă acest atributiv ţine de refacerea unitaţii primordiale sau a androginiei filozofice.
După acelasi principiu, vlăstarul de os domneasc din basmele romînilor, are înscris întotdeauna, pe trupul său, soarele în piept şi luna în spate, iar la brâu un spic de grâu.
În al treilea rând atât Rama din scrierile sanscrite, cât şi Negru-Vodaădin cronicile medievale româneşti sunt consideraţi ca fiind păstrători de lege (dharma) şi rânduială străbună, iar acest lucru pare firesc dacă se ia în calcul calitatea lor de prinţi fondatori statali.Dacă pentru Rama aceste calitaţi se află scrise explicit, în cazul lui Negru-Vodă ele se deduc, din ton şi din evlavia cu care de fiecare dată este pomenit, atunci când este vorba de spiritul de dreptate, fie în cronici, fie în cultura orală, populară.De n-ar fi fost aşa memoria românilor nu l-ar fi păstrat.Se poate bănui un cult al lui Negrul-Vodă la geţi, corespunzător cultului lui Rama, prezent şi astăzi printre popoarele Indiei.
În al patrulea rând Rama ca şi Negru-Vodă sunt prinţi exilaţi, peregrini prin codrii. Să ne amintim că Rama, Sita şi fratele său Lakshmana au fost nevoiţi să trăiască timp de  paisprezece ani departe de cetatea de baştina, Ayodhya (Aiud) în adâncimi de pădure, departe de lume.Şi Negru-Vodă este tot un peregrin prin codrii deşi acest lucru, astăzi, nu se mai ştie. Iată dovada într-un cântec bătrânesc autentic : 
Pe Argeş în jos,
Pe un mal frumos,
Verde şi stufos,
Prin des carpiniş,
Prin mândru haţiş
Şi prin aluniş,
Plimbă-mi-se-mplimbă,
Şi tot locul schimbă,
Negru-Vodă – Crai
Cu mare alai (5). 
Aceste doua versuri ,,Plimbă-mi-se-mplimbă/Şi tot locul schimbă”, exprimă condiţia de rătăcitor,  starea de prinţ autoexilat din lume ce îsi schimbă mereu locul, după cum epopea ne spune : când la Chitrakuta ( Chiatra/Piatra Neamţ) când la Panciavati ( Panciu) când la sihăstria vestitului Atri (Chilia Moşului de la mânastirea Cetaţuia lui Negru-Vodă). 
În al cincilea rând, unei Biharii din India, socotită a fi vechea Kosala- patria lui Rama, îi corespunde o Biharie (Bihor) transilvană, pe care trebuie să o considerăm patria lui Negru-Vodă şi din alte trei motive : a) tradiţia cărturărească, din cronici, care spune că Negru-Vodă a sosit în parţile Munteniei venind din nord. b)regăsirea capitalei ţării, Kosala, numită Ayodhya în localitatea Aiud, care se află situată în aceeaşi zonă .Prin urmare, Kosala carpatică, patria lui Negru-Vodă a fost Biharia ( Bihor) şi trebuie să fi fost mult mai întinsă decât actualul judeţ Bihor. c)din această Kosala ramayanică făceau parte şi munţii Pădurea Craiului, adică munţii lui Rama-Chandra sau Negru-Vodă-Craiul.
În al şaselea rând, Rama şi fratele său Lakshmana devin Roman şi Vlahata din legenda care priveşte întemeierea Moldovei. Aici prinţul nu este Negru-Vodă căci Rama apare sub numele său consacrat, fapt explicabil dacă ţinem cont că legenda funcţionează într-un spaţiu din afara graniţelor Munteniei,  pe filieră moldava (6).  După cum Rama, Sita si fratele lui Rama, numit Lakshmana au fost surghiuniţi în codru, tot astfel cronica scrie că Roman şi Vlahata sunt doi fraţi care părăsesc cetatea Veneţiei, goniţi fiind de eretici şi îsi zidesc o alta cetate, Noul Râm. Este evident ca nu avem decat o adaptare a scenariului din Ramayana la cerintele momentului feudal, caracterizat de confruntarea dintre catolici şi ortodocşi.
În al şaptelea rând, atât Rama cât şi Negru-Vodă sunt caracterizaţi ca oameni pioşi ocrotitori ai asceţilor. Rama i-a ocrotit pe veneraţii sanyasini, le-a purtat respect şi atunci când a fost cazul i-a apărat faţă de demonii raksaşi. Pe de altă parte Negru-Vodă este şi el un ocrotitor al schimnicilor, dovedit prin faptul că el a rămas în legende ca fiind constructor de mânăstiri, iar cântecul bătrânesc ,,Meşterul Manole” îl prezintă tocmai în această ipostază.
În judeţul Argeş există mânăstirea ,,Cetaţuia lui Negru-Vodă” care păstrează o biserică rupestră, de închinăciune creştină, aflată pe locul alteia, păgîne şi care se consideră a fi fost locul unde poposea Negru-Vodă cu Doamna sa, pentru reculegere – ideie ramayanică prin excelentă. Pe prima terasă a Muchiei Cetăţuii, pe un pinten stâncos au fost descoperite urme ale unei aşezări dacice, datând din secolul 3 Î.H..Deasupra schitului, pe o lespede de piatră, strajuită de o troiţă se desluşesc urmele unor paşi despre care legenda spune că ar fi fost ale lui Negru-Vodă.
Or prezenţa amprentelor paşilor, în piatră este specifică cultelor unor divinităţi antice şi n-ar fi exclus ca, aşa cum în India există capele închinate lui Rama, să fi existat şi în Carpaţi altare dedicate lui Negru-Vodă. În spatele bisericii mânăstirii Negru-Vodă se află o scobitură în piatră numită Chilia Moşului, crestele munţilor din apropiere se numesc ,,Negru-Vodă călare”, un alt promontoriu din zonă este cunoscut ca fiind ,,Tronul lui Negru-Vodă”. În această alăturare Negru-Vodă – Moşul se află legătura dintre Rama şi sanyasini, schimnicii pădurilor, dar mai poate fi şi coabitarea dintre puterea regală şi cea sacerdotală, provenind dintr-o religie vedică, protogetică.
În al optulea rând există destule legende toponimice, legate de Negru-Vodă, care puse cap la cap reconstituie fragmentar acea Ramayană carpato-dunăreană astăzi pierdută.
Rama, Sita şi Lakshmana cu întreaga lor poveste a vieţii fericite în codrii, apoi lupta eroului pentru salvarea prinţesei răpite de demonul Ravana, pot oferi o explicaţie logică legendelor de genul : ,Masa lui Negru-Vodă” (locul unde mâncau Rama şi Sita); ,,Săritoarea lui Negrul-Vodă” (cascada lui Rama de pe râul Mandakini din Chitrakuta); ,,Scăldătoarea lui Negru-Vodă”(locul de îmbăiere al lui Rama din codru); ,,Podul lui Negru-Vodă” (podul lui Rama spre Sri-Lanka) (7).
Epopea lui Negru-Vodă trebuie să fi fost suficient de cunoscută şi îndrăgită de marea masă a geţilor, din moment ce toponimia României este plină de locuri care amintesc de ispravile sale ori de ţara sa de origine, mitica Kosala.
În al noulea rând, legenda corvineştilor care explică prezenţa corbului în blazonul voevozilor din Muntenia se află într-o formă asemănătoare în Ramayana. Între acest fragment din epopee şi legenda lui Ioan Corvin sunt următoarele elemente comune : existenţa unui cuplu princiar; somnul bărbatului şi veghea femeii; apariţia corbului; trezirea bărbatului; săgetarea corbului (8).  Este cum nu se poate mai limpede că înainte de a fi fost o legendă medievală acest episod a făcut parte din Ramayana carpatică, pe care o căutăm, după cum tot atat de limpede este, pentru oricine, că pasărea corb este pasărea neagră, negrul-corb fiind negrul total.
În cheie simbolică vedică acest episod ar putea să însemne detaşarea faţă de fructul faptei, însuşire a iniţiatului, obligat să trăiască, totuşi, în lume.
În al zecelea rând există mai multe asemănări între calitaţile lui Lakshmana ţi fratele lui Negru-Vodă, cel din cântecele bătrâneşti ori legende (v.Roman şi Vlahata,precum şi fratele-cioban al voevodului din lirica străveche, autentică). Deşi tradiţia nu l-a reţinut sub acelaşi nume el are atribute similare lui Lakshmana : el este cel priceput, cel norocos, cel dibaci, el este vlahul. În cântecele bătrâneşti fratele lui Negru-Vodă este reprezentat printr-un cioban care îşi regăseşte ruda de sânge printr-o întâmplare, însă şi la el predomină aceeaşi calitate- destoinicia (9).
În al unsprezecelea rând avem informaţii de la istorici antici despre existenţa ,pe teritoriul Daciei, a unei cetaţi Ramadava (Ramidava) precum şi a alteia numită Romula, toponime care ar putea veni şi de la Rama nu neapărat de la Roma. Ramung este si el prinţul valah, din epopeea Nibelungilor, ceea ce arată că tradiţia dacică s-a perpetuat până în ev- mediu.
În al doisprezecelea rând avem acelaşi destin tragic la sfârşit de epopee a personajului feminin, atât în Ramayana getică cât şi în cea hindusă.
Sita, soţia lui Rama, cât şi Doamna lui Negru-Vodă dispar, ambele, în cadrul unui anume scenariu înghiţite de pământ. Să ne amintim finalul epopeii Ramayana, când Sita, în faţa banuielii nedrepte ce se aducea neprihănirii sale, cere pământului a cărei fiică era ( cuvântul,,sita” înseamnă în limba sanscrită ,,brazdă”) să se deschidă şi să o resoarbă. În momentul în care Sita se aruncă în pământul ce tocmai s-a deschis acesta o primeşte precum îmbrăţişarea unei mame.Aidoma Sitei şi Doamna lui Negru-Vodă se sinucide, aruncându-se spre pământ. Conteaza mai putin ca legenda, numită ,,Piscul Doamnei” a
ajuns până la noi deformată, întamplarea fiind pusă pe seama unor evenimente generate de un conflict armat între valahi şi tătari, timp în care soţia lui Negru-Vodă se aruncă de pe o stâncă pentu a nu fi prinsă. Pentru noi important este că principiul resorbţiei lumii fenomenale, simbolizat prin fiica pământului se respectă întrutotul. Dacă vrem să înţelegem în intenţia şi simbolica sa originară legenda ,,Piscul Doamnei” trebuie să apelăm acum la versurile de o frumuseţe tulburătoare din Ramayana care spun : Se deschise-atunci pământul şi-apăru un tron de aur/, Tron înconjurat de zâne, ca un trandafir de frunze/…Mama îşi luă în braţe pe copila ei curată/, Fiica sfântului Janaka, Sita , blânda, preafrumoasa ! Toţi îi laudă virtutea! Sita însă nu mai este ! Rama-i singur! Fericirea zilelor pierdutu-i-s-a… (10).
Iată dousprezece argumente pentru a afirma că Negru-Vodă nu a fost un personaj istoric ci un erou de epopee unul si acelaşi cu Rama din Carpaţi. 
GHEORGHE ŞEITAN
Note : 
1).B.P.Haşdeu, Istoria critică a românilor, Ed.Minerva, Bucureşti, 1984, pg.150.
2).I.M.Cristea, În Ţara surâsului-Thailanda, Ed.Libra, Bucureşti, 2000, pg. 134; v. si M.Martiş, De la Bharata la Gandhi, Ed.ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1987; se poate consulta şi Mică enciclopedie de istorie universală, Ed.politică, Bucureşti, 1988.
3).Valmiki, Ramayana, Ed. pentru literatură, 1968, vol.2, pg. 295.
4).A se vedea N.Desuşianu, Dacia preistorică, Ed. Mentor, 2000; Maria Gimbutas, Civilizaţie şi cultură, Ed. Meridiane, Bucureşti, 1989; ,,Carpaţii leagănul civilizaţiei euro-indo-iranice”, în Anexa II din volumul, Iordanes, Getica, Ed. Gândirea, Bucureşti, 2001, cu un studiu introductiv de Gabriel Gheorghe.
5).Ion Taloş, Meşterul Manole, Ed.Grai şi suflet, Bucureşti, 1997, pg. 355.
6).Despre Roman şi Vlahata a se vedea Gheorghe Bratianu, Ed.Eminescu, Bucureşti, 1980, pg. 155 dar şi B.P. Haşdeu, op. cit. pag.158-160.
7).Legende populare geografice, Ed.Sport-turism, 1986, pg. 119; 125; 203; precizăm că înţelesul cuvântului ,,săritoare” din legende este acela de ,,cascadă”-locul în care apa sare.
8).Legende populare româneşti, Ed.Albatros, Bucureşti, 1983, pg. 144.
9).Folclor din Oltenia şi Muntenia, vol.V, Ed. Minerva, Bucureşti, 1970, pg. 328.
10).Valmiki, op. cit. vol. II, pg. 283.
(Comunicare susţinută la Congresul internaţional de dacologie, Bucuresti, 14-16 iunie 2009).



Numarul 493 din 24.09.2009


  2008 august, nr.437 –    O istorie a romanului de la Ramayana la Don Quijote

Afirmarea unui supragen

Autor: Şerban AXINTE


Mirela ROZNOVEANU
Civilizaţia romanului. O istorie a romanului de la Ramayana la Don Quijote
Editura Cartex,
Bucureşti, 2008, 320 p.
Mirela Roznoveanu, eseistă de mare calibru în anii ’80 şi ’90 şi rezidentă din 1991 la New York, este autoarea cărţii Civilizaţia romanului. O istorie a romanului de la Ramayana la Don Quijote (Editura Cartex, 2008), unul dintre cele mai importante studii dedicate romanului universal. Vorbim despre o lucrare ştiinţifică înzestrată cu multiple valenţe autoscopice, care-şi află identitatea odată cu scrierea textului sau cu înaintarea în lectură, scriitoarea fiindu-şi sieşi hermeneut.
În „Introducere“, Mirela Roznoveanu îşi face cunoscută ipoteza de lucru, conform căreia toate civilizaţiile sau culturile şi-au gîndit în mod diferit arhitectura epico-narativă, romanul, nefăcîndu-l totuşi inaccesibil nouă, pentru că, iată, îl putem recunoaşte. Cercetătoarea consideră că, „în traseul ei temporal, umanitatea a conservat şi perfecţionat un mod romanesc de creaţie şi gîndire. Toate acestea s-au perpetuat în intenţiile universal-actualizate ale autorului: ilustrarea unor adevăruri cruciale ale lumii sale printr-o arhitectură epică în cel mai înalt grad reprezentativă pentru orizontul estetic şi spiritual al acestei lumi“. Astfel, putem înţelege ce este de fapt „civilizaţia romanului“: afirmarea existenţei perpetue, în întreaga istorie a culturilor umanităţii, a unui supragen „cu virtuţi estetice integratoare“. Cartea propune o genealogie şi, totodată, stabileşte o tipologie, un nou discurs critic, consubstanţial cu estetica, filozofia, religia, naratologia, stilistica şi tehnica naraţiunii.
Trebuie menţionat că studiul de faţă a apărut iniţial în două volume. Primul (Rădăcini, Editura Albatros, 1983) analiza arhitecturile epice existente în străvechile lumi, hindusă, iraniană, egipteană, chineză, greacă, latină, pentru ca al doilea (numit chiar Arhitecturi epice, Editura Cartea românească, 1991) să se centreze pe construcţiile romaneşti ale creştinismului timpuriu, ale Evului Mediu european şi ale Renaşterii, ale Bizanţului, ale Arabiei şi Japoniei. Timp de 20 de ani, lucrarea nu a lipsit din nici o bibliografie serioasă dedicată romanului.
Cele trei cercuri
 Reunirea într-un tom unic a celor două părţi ale studiului şi reintrarea acestuia în circuitul lucrărilor de referinţă despre roman sînt însoţite de un alt text, de o „predoslovie“ teoretică formată dintr-o „Introducere“ (din care am citat mai sus) şi un „Cuvînt înainte“ (care a prefaţat iniţial, în 1991, Arhitecturile epice). Nu vorbim despre o simplă dare de seamă sau despre exprimarea unor deziderate de natură metodologică. Paratextul exegezei de faţă este format dintr-o succesiune de cercuri concentrice. Primul, cel mai „strîmt“, este acela al textului care se autointerpretează şi propune metafore critice complexe, ce se împlinesc doar în timpul lecturii cărţii propriu-zise sau chiar după parcurgerea ultimei file. Al doilea ţine de metacritica Civilizaţiei romanului. Ediţia cea nouă contracarează, cu argumente bine întemeiate, unele reproşuri aduse în timp studiului despre care vorbim. Astfel, autoarea reuşeşte să-şi exprime mult mai clar viziunea asupra romanului şi, mai ales, asupra metodelor de cunoaştere şi de recunoaştere a acestuia. Ultimul cerc, deşi periferic, este foarte important din punctul de vedere al cercetării ştiinţifice. Bibliografia domeniului îmbogăţindu-se cu numeroase titluri, în ultimii 25 de ani, era firesc ca Mirela Roznoveanu să-şi aducă lucrarea la zi. Dar interesant este faptul că autoarea nu a avut prea multe lucruri de aflat şi de învăţat din cărţile editate între timp, pentru că acestea nu au avut alt rol decît acela de a-i confirma şi verifica propriile teorii. Aşadar, studiul apărut jumătate în comunism, jumătate în plin haos postdecembrist este, în fapt, precursorul, cel puţin moral, al mai multor lucrări consacrate romanului, publicate în ultimii ani, mai ales în spaţiul american. Acest lucru este dovedit pe tot parcursul cărţii prin numeroasele trimiteri bibliografice, care oferă valenţe caleidoscopice întregului edificiu teoretico-analitic.
Să ne întoarcem acum la ce înseamnă cu adevărat „civilizaţia romanului“. Mirela Roznoveanu vorbeşte despre existenţa unui epic superior arhitecturat, recognoscibil în lumile de dinaintea lumii noastre, dar „formulat din perspectiva unor exigenţe estetice diferite“, acesta făcîndu-şi simţită prezenţa de fiecare dată cînd o civilizaţie ajungea la apogeul dezvoltării sale. Cercetătoarea consideră că epicul superior arhitecturat este aparent acelaşi (ceea ce ne trimite cu gîndul la teoria invarianţilor a lui étiemble) şi, totodată, diferit pretutindeni. Acelaşi, deoarece se lasă înţeles, admirat şi valorizat din perspectiva generală a culturii, diferit, pentru că arhitecturile estetice create în civilizaţii culturale deosebite nu se pot suprapune. Aşadar, „civilizaţia romanului este orizontul de tensiune dintre forma estetică integratoare şi civilizaţie, în ansamblul ei“.
O sinteză a sintezei
Primele forme de roman sînt conţinute în „Tipul vedic“, Ramayana fiind o structură epică ce se raportează la o realitate extratextuală, „un text în care epicul şi poezia coexistă dincolo de orice rivalităţi“ şi în care sînt înglobate toate relaţiile, structurile, temele, motivele, obsesiile, efectele stilistice narative etc. Această formă de artă se apropie foarte mult de ceea ce înţelegem noi astăzi prin roman, tocmai datorită caracterului proteic al acestuia. Odiseea celei mai populare specii a genului epic continuă cu Ghilgameş, text ce prefigurează apariţia altor capodopere ale genului. Mirela Roznoveanu stabileşte mereu geneza unei opere literare şi identifică legăturile (uneori involuntare) care se înfiripă la nivel macrotextual între scrieri separate de adevăraţi eoni culturali. Reducînd totul la o singură frază, afirmăm că romanul lui Ghilgameş aduce în atenţie, înaintea Vechiului şi a Noului Testament, ideea conform căreia „numai cuvîntul sau, mai bine spus, arta cuvîntului poate eterniza un destin“.
Autoarea analizează literatura egipteană din perspectiva sau prin filtrul timpului. Deosebit de interesantă este ideea că prezentul dramatic şi eternitatea au unul şi acelaşi chip pentru cititorul prezumtiv al unor scrieri de tipul Cărţii morţilor. Roman se pare că este însăşi Biblia; autoarea demonstrează acest fapt prin interpretarea Bibliei din perspectiva naratologiei. Naratorul care narează în numele lui Dumnezeu, naratorul care îl ignoră, dar nu îl neagă pe Dumnezeu, naratorul martor asemeni lui Dumnezeu, naratorul care l-a pierdut pe Dumnezeu, naratorul care ţine locul lui Dumnezeu, naratorul care îl regăseşte reprezintă multiplele faţete ale autorului-narator, omniscient şi etern. Biblia se pare că anticipează toate vocile posibile, toate instanţele ordonatoare aflate în spatele unui text. Romanul chinez este considerat homofonic, expresie a spiritului sintetic chinez, ce condensează mai multe lumi imaginare şi mai multe arhitecturi epice într-un text unic. În legătură cu Iliada se avansează ideea că aceasta ar fi fost inspirată de alte scrieri anterioare, pe care Homer nu le recunoaşte însă drept temelie a arhitecturii sale epice. Romanul lui Apuleius e înţeles ca replică la adresa romanului grec, convenţia metamorfozei înlesnind crearea unei psihologii şi pătrunderea autorului în conştiinţa personajului său, tehnică ce anticipează marea proză analitică a secolului al XX-lea. Dacă a fost sau nu Aurelius Augustinus o „verigă de aur“ în dezvoltarea romanului universal este întrebarea care persistă şi după minuţioasa analiză a Mărturisirilor, singura hagiografie cunoscută a eului, a sufletului interior al autorului.
În capitolul „Decorul unei idei“ sînt stabilite reperele epicului arab, în formula căruia personajul-narator pune accentul asupra aventurii personale („ea însăşi o suită de metamorfoze“), ce impune romanului o anumită notă realistă, „unde evenimentul prim este selectat de persoana retorului, faţă de care păleşte orice altă aventură“.
Romanul japonez este comentat din perspectiva unei estetici a libertăţii nelimitate, care determină, pe de o parte, caracterul antiepic al acestuia şi, pe de altă parte, posibilitatea de a condensa în sine „mult mai multe sensuri decît se rostesc“. În „Permanenţa unei sinteze“ se demonstrează faptul că spiritul culturii răsăritene s-a configurat în Bizanţ „prin obsesia realismului istoric într-o cultură unde realismul nu avea ce căuta; în ruptura eului creator care scria, pe de o parte cum se cerea, dar în ascuns, aşa cum îi dicta conştiinţa; în imposibilitatea romancierului, tiranizat de operele clasice, de a opta pentru un stil personal într-o cultură unde stilul a devenit o soluţie salvatoare; în criza opţiunilor filozofice într-un univers al ideilor sfîşiat de eclectism sau dogme; în împovărătoarea stimă faţă de modelele caracterologice vechi, ce păreau a lumina prin echilibru, dar nu mai corespundeau sufletului nou; în refugiul în teme neangajante; în modul în care romancierul înţelegea să slujească duhul ortodox, fervoarea creştină a maselor prin crearea eroului smerit şi mîntuit“. În penultimul capitol, autoarea fixează dubla filiaţie a romanului medieval occidental: prima, de factură clasică, latină, a doua, de natură bizantină. Ca o concluzie la analiza operelor unor autori precum Chrétien de Troyes sau Giovanni Boccaccio, este accentuată ideea că, în acea perioadă „pentru prima oară în istoria romanului occidental, spiritul Orientului şi spiritul Occidentului fuzionează pentru a se despărţi apoi pentru multe secole“. Redescoperirea romanului greco-latin a fost urmată de apariţia şi impunerea ca model dominant în cultura europeană a romanului cavaleresc. Păşind pe urmele lui Pulci, Tasso, Ariosto, Castiglione sau Rabelais, cercetătoarea ajunge la Cervantes, cu alte cuvinte, face posibilă întîlnirea (în interiorul capitolului final, „De la Orlando la Don Quijote“) dintre parodie şi obiectul parodiat. Toate asemănările şi deosebirile dintre cele două arhitecturi epice sînt privite simultan prin ochii ambelor feţe ale lui Ianus.
Ecuaţia totalităţii
Mirela Roznoveanu rescrie devenirea romanului nu doar în perspectivă diacronică. Fiecare segment al cărţii este conectat la întreg, orice amănunt primeşte un rol important în procesul rezolvării unei ecuaţii a totalităţii. Vorbind despre romanul indian, grec, latin, chinez sau japonez, cercetătoarea mărturiseşte şi ceva despre prezent. Trecutul îşi determină viitorul, tot aşa cum prezentul repune în discuţie şi interpretează toate lumile de dinaintea sa. Din acest motiv, credem că autoarea reface de mai multe ori, dintr-o perspectivă polifonică, destinul romanului.
Nu am putut prezenta şi analiza aici mai detaliat conţinutul fiecărui capitol în parte, dar am încercat să sistematizez unele dintre acele idei pe care călătorul-hermeneut a vrut să le desluşească mai întîi pentru sine, pentru a le înapoia culturii, împreună cu amprenta sa personală, abia după ce va fi refăcut, de nenumărate ori şi în diferite moduri, drumul de la Ramayana la Don Quijote.
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Comentarii utilizatori

articol
Niculina Oprea, Luni, 25 August 2008, 20:23
Bravo, Serban!
felicitari
Bogdan Suceava, Vineri, 22 August 2008, 20:05
Bravo, Serban, pentru articol. E clar ca paginile ‘Observatorului cultural’ ti se potrivesc cel mai bine, dintre toate locurile unde ai publicat pana acum.
Evoluţia “fiului mijlociu” al epicului
Paul Blaj, Vineri, 22 August 2008, 17:25
Dl. Şerban ne face o surpriză densă, pertinentă şi arguţioasă. Suntem bucuroşi de apariţia acestei lucrări de o luminoasă erudiţie şi parturientă ofertă intelectului doritor de informaţie pe cât de genuină pe atât de avizată, după cum ne-a obişnuit Mirela Roznoveanu. Felicitări autoarei şi strângeri de mână autorului articolului, cel ce îmbie cu tact la lectură şi reflexie.
Istoria romanului
stelian plesoiu, Vineri, 22 August 2008, 09:47
De acord cu acest comentariu asupra lucrarii scrise de Mirela Roznoveanu. Desi nu sint de specialitate
am parcurs aceasta detaliata lucrare si pot spune de departe ca este mai mult decit si-a propus autoarea. Este o carte de referinta cu un continut foarte bine documentat, cu trimiteri foarte precise, este o mica enciclopedie daca vreti. Sint convins ca foarte curind aceasta carte va fi pe masa fiecarui student studios si profund in calea cunoasterii adevarului istorico-literar.
Cu convingerea ca vom fi din nou surprinsi de autor, nu imi pot exprima decit felicitarile sincere pentru autor.
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Ramayana meet in Romania

International Ramayana meet in Romania By Surender Bhutani, Indo-Asian News Service | 22 September 2006

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Bucharest, Sep 22 (IANS) Romania has been proposed as the next host of the International Ramayana Conference, after the 22nd edition of the event concluded recently in the British city of Birmingham.
Bucharest, Sep 22 (IANS) Romania has been proposed as the next host of the International Ramayana Conference, after the 22nd edition of the event concluded recently in the British city of Birmingham.
Romania, which is slated to join the European Union on Jan 1, 2007, has been the epicentre for European gypsies, who maintain that their ancestors originated from India. It is pointed out that there are some 8,000 Romani words that have Hindi and Sanskrit roots.
‘Romania looks for spiritual guidance only from two places, Italy and India,’ said George Anca, director-general of the National Library, Bucharest.
Anca, greatly attached to the philosophy of the Ramayana, has been instrumental in setting up an Indian Library within the complex of the National Library where many researchers are working on Hindi and Sanskrit texts.Former Indian president Shankar Dayal Sharma and recently Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat visited the Indian Library during their trips to the country.
Anca, a former visiting professor at the University of Delhi during 1977-84 and then 2002-03, is hopeful that the Indian government and the growing Indian community in Romania will support his efforts to organise the next International Ramayana Conference.
It is imperative to spread the message of the Ramayana in different parts of the world in an age of ever growing violence, Anca told IANS in an interview.
He said: ‘The ancient message of the Ramayana continues to be relevant for the human race. It is not surprising that Mahatama Gandhi was tremendously influenced by the teachings of the Ramayana. If Gandhiji is still relevant for the world so is his guidebook – Ramayana.’ 
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Spiritualitate: Rădăcini spirituale străvechi în DACIA (I)
Tentativa pe care o întreprindem, pentru a descifra unele sensuri profunde ale spiritualităţii în antichitatea atât de puţin cunoscută a locuitorilor acestor ţinuturi, se dovedeşte deopotrivă pasionantă, dar şi generatoare de riscuri; ne referim mai cu seamă la ispita, care i-a încercat pe mulţi, de a luneca pe o pantă patriotardă. Încercând să evităm această greşeală, punctul nostru de plecare, îl va reprezenta opera a doi autori români, ce constituie o referinţă în materie.
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DA.KSA-TARA ZEILOR: Bogatii agatarsi si Brasov- creatii ariene! (de Nicolae Miulescu)

Bogatii agatarsi si Brasov-creatii ariene!
      Traseul lasat de grupul condus de Aswapati este cel mai vrednic de incredere.
     Indicatiile toponimiei si informatiile furnizate de istorie ne permit sa afirmam ca acest grup, ca un tot, a urmat tarmul de sud al Caspicei, pana la capatul sud-vestic.
     Din acel loc, o parte dintre ei a mers in Valea lui Cyru (acum Cura), si-a croit acest drum intre colinele vestice de la poalele mun tilor Caucaz si tarmul Euxin (Marea Neagra), au traversat Crimeea si au intrat in stepa ucraineana, apoi, urmand „Calea Zeilor” s-au asezat intre Mures si Somes. Acestia sunt stramosii agatarsilor, mentionati de Herodot (cartea a IV-a, 5-10).
Altii au mers de-a lungul raului Araxes (acum Aras), au urmarit tarmul sudic Euxin, au traversat Bosforul in Turcia (unde i-au lasat pe Shatri, vezi Herodot, VII, 110-112), apoi, cu marea in partea dreapta , au mers dincolo de capatul de est al Hemus-ului, au traversat Istrul si au urcat la pasunile inalte din Fagaras si Muntii Bucegi.
     Probabil ca ei au intrat pe acest pamant cam pe unde se varsa Vedea in Dunare, de unde grupurile s-au separat, asa cum se arata de catre numele inca existente.
Nu este greu de vazut ca rajahul Brasiva-Sala s-a stabilit in tara Barsei si ca a dat numele sau asezarii care acum se cheama Brasov. Vom mentiona doar, ca proba suplimentara, ca dealul numit Varte, din mijlocul orasului, confirma identificarea, ca termenul Varte nu vine asa cum s-ar crede din germanul Warten (a astepta), ci din vedicul Varta-pamant. Intregul nume era „Brasiva-Varta”, pamantul lui Brasiva. Este tot atat de usor de vazut ca un alt loc, numit Budila, langa Brasov, poarta numele lui VUDILA, camaradul de arme al lui Brasiva, dupa cum poate fi vazut ca satul Sarcaia poarta numele lui Sharka.ra, stramosul comun al lui Djava si Indradyumna.
      Ar putea, de asemenea, sa fie o legatura intre Satyaga Djnya si satul Jida, Djjnya insemnand „unul din Djini” care poate fi citit Jini (conform ortografiei sanscrite). Am folosit expresia „ar putea” pentru ca nu consideram aceasta legatura drept sigura. In spijinul dovezilor furnizate de identitatile de nume sunt de asemnea si coincidente curioase. Cele trei locuri Sarcaia, Brasov, Budila se afla intr-un complex de asezari purtand numele zeilor vedici. O vom numi doar pe cea mai remarcabila (n.edit: De multe milenii, primul lucru pe care il fac invingatorii este sa schimbe orice denumire ce ar putea pastra vechile traditii ale invinsilor. N-au facut exceptie nici bolsevicii, ni „democratii” de dupa 1989…
Brasov a fost redenumit orasul lui Stalin iar din ‘90 s-a inregistrat o frenezie a schimbarii denumirii strazilor si cartierelor. Fireste, Ion Antonescu a devenit un nume ilegal pentru ca nu convine adevaratilor conducatori ai Romaniei post-decembriste…)
       Tamasfalau, un loc cam la 30 km est de Brasov, poarta numele unei zeitati vedice autentice (vezi M.D.S.I, 62), tAMAS. A nu se confunda cu Tamasha, intelept al celor 7 Manu. Tamsh este zeul intunericului primordial (vezi M.D.S.I., 5 si XII, 24)
      Pava (5 km de la Tamasfalau) poarta numele lui Agni-zeul focului, care printre alte 16 nume si supranume este denumit Pavaka.
      Moaksa (22 km de Budila) poarta numele unuia dintre aspectele Divinitatii, exprimand precis aceasta unitate, infinitatea despre care vorbea Aswapati.
     Harman este derivat din Hara.mani.Ra (ieremenitul) protejat de Hara, nume dat unuia dintre marii zei, cand se referea la puterea lor fizica (de unde si Hercule).
     Ar trebui notat ca toate locurile inconjoara varful Baratau, numit dupa Bhara.ta, eroul sub a carui conducere o mare parte a Indiei a fost cucerita si ale carui fapte sunt elogiate in Mahabharata (si nu Mahabharatta, cum este scrisa uneori).
Omu-Muntele Sfant al arienilor
      O privire peste harta va fi instructiva. Pe langa identificarea numelor, fiecare unitate centrala este inconjurata de altele care o confirma. De exemplu: Aswapati-stapan al hergheliilor de cai si vizitiu si calarasi, calareti. Numai la cativa kilometri este Ludus, locul unde s-au alergat caii lor (comparativ cu latinul Ludussus= spectacole, jocuri publice).
     Brasiva- sta langa camarazii sai Vudila (Budila), de o parte si Djava- fiul lui Sharkara, pe de alta parte, cu un munte intre ei numit Cetatuia si altul purtand numele de Bhara.ta (varful Baratau). Si intreaga tara este inconjurata de munti purtand numele zeilor pe care ei ii divinizau: OMU (silaba vedica sacra), Negoiu (Nagas), Papusa (Pa.Pushan), Siriu (Shri sau Sri-zeita a bogatiei).
   ….
(Da.ksa-Tara Zeilor, Nicolae Miulescu, editura Obiectiv Craiova, Eugen Delcea )
Cuprins:
Cuvântul  editorului    3
Introducere     13
DA.KŞA – ŢARA ZEILOR      (Nicolae  Miulescu)   15
I. OMUL PRIMORDIAL DIN FORTUL CARPATIC  17
Omul epocii glaciare    17
Limba – necesară la vânătoare   18
Dicţionarul paleo-european      19
Unitatea Europei – topită la dezgheţ…   19
Prima Epocă de Aur a Omenirii   21
Fortul Carpatic şi Fortul Gasconic      21
Animalele domesticite – trimise ale zeilor      23
Pământul Făgăduinţei de la Carpaţi şi Dunăre    24
Fortul Carpatic – sanctuarul Oamenilor Primordiali      25
Calea Zeilor migratori din… România     26
Migraţia din Carpaţi spre Caucaz, Sumer, Ind    27
II. DA.KŞA – ŢARA ZEILOR        29
Celebrii arieni erau Carpato-Istrienii  29
Vedele conţin spiritualitatea strămoşilor noştri        30
Brahma şi războiul castelor     30
Luptele lui BALA-RAMA – în Carpaţi…     31
Şi maimuţele luptau alături de Rama !   32
Ramayana descrie România…       34
Zeii vedici… de la Alexandria   34
Kauşitaki-Upanişad      36
Ţara Zeilor… de pe Someşuri     36
Sălaj – adunarea apelor 37
Zeii lunari vedici – adunare… pe Someş  38
Localităţile din Ardeal – nume de zei arieni…   39
Drumul Zeilor… spre Sălaj       40
III. REÎNTOARCEREA  ARIENILOR   41
Brahma şi Zalmoxa       41
„Brahmanii – sprijiniţi de populaţiile inferioare”      41
Casta învinsă a revenit în Dacia Pelasgă        42
Când arienii se întorc, apar sciţii…    43
Bogaţii agatârşi şi Braşov – creaţii ariene !   44
Localităţile din România – vechi de când Lumea !        46
Omu – Muntele Sfânt al arienilor        47
IV. CELE  12  TRIBURI  ARIENE   48
Cele 4 Caste    48
Du-te vino pe „Drumul Zeilor”…  49
Legile lui Manu 50
Organizare ariană… cu localităţi româneşti      51
Cele 12 triburi ariene exilate  52
Arienii Yavanas – strămoşii ionienilor  54
Tracii nu era… negri !  55
Herodot nu a greşit     55
Făurarii celţi trăiau la Cazane 56
„Naşterea lui Indra”… la Porţile de Fier !      58
Săbieşii arieni de la… Caran.sebeş, Sebeş şi Sibiu      59
Paul Chinezu era… urmaşul luptătorilor vedici   59
Hercule era… Indra !    60
De la Ind până la Tisa… 62
România – Ţara Zeilor   63
Ila – zeiţa bucuriei din Oltenia        63
Strămoşii românilor – Părinţii Europei  65
Anexa   66
Index  de  nume 68
Appendix        75
Note şi comentarii      (text inedit)   76
Someş – locul sfânt pentru vedici       76
Limba română – cheia Istoriei Universale        76
De la Hiperboreea la România    77
„Câteva curiozităţi toponimice” pot schimba Istoria Omenirii    77
Ce-i uneşte pe slavi, greci, maghiari, francezi –
      limba română      78
Filologia occidentală – în interesul Vaticanului        80
Sciţii dobrogeni – strămoşii… slavilor  80
Zalmoxe – Zeul Moş, Zalmoxe – Zeul Pământului   81
„Pe Cronos, geţii îl numesc Zalmoxis”   82
Fericirea supremă – adusă de… brahmani  82
Nemurirea – vechiul vis al Omenirii     83
Geţii – Părinţii Europei        84
Nici Zalmoxis, nici Zamolxis, ci Zalmoxa        85
Geto-dacii şi vedicii credeau în acelaşi Dumnezeu Etern 86
Religia geţilor – o religie a… Universului Infinit şi Etern     87
Hiperboreieni = geţi = daci     88
Timpul – Marele Zeu     89
Marea îndatorire – îngrijirea focului sacru     90
Ce este Sufletul Universal ?    91
UNU – Sufletul Universal        92
Limba primară – monosilabică    93
Limba – un proces cerebral      94
Cuvintele onomatopeice – din era glaciară !     95
Limba vedică (sfântă) era monosilabică ?        96
În erele glaciare, Omul a evoluat şi s-a diversificat ! 96
Diversificarea umană – datorită climei, nu metisării    97
Vânătorii primitivi – creatorii limbajului      98
Despot – „tatăl poporului”      98
Arienii din Carpaţi au dat cuvinte la europenii fraţi   99
Dacea – regele zeilor   100
Dacii vorbeau româneşte…        101
… ca şi britanicii !    102
Limba slavă – o limbă de cancelarie a statelor ortodoxe 103
Slavii – pescarii războinici    104
Tracii slavizaţi de la sudul Dunării    105
Buda s-a mutat în Dacia !       106
Slavii – pelasgi de limbă slavă 106
Fil.ologii duşmanilor Romei     107
„Istoria Românilor”… slavizaţi ?!       108
Pescarii slavi vorbeau… limbi străine   109
„Academicienii” ne-au vândut limba !    110
Primii romani… vorbeau slava ?!!        111
De ce vorbesc englezii… româneşte       112
Pelasgii şi arienii vedici din… Marea Britanie  113
Tracii, dacii şi britanicii – slavizaţi de „savanţi”…   114
Româna – Limba Primordială      115
Maghiarii vorbeau … înainte de naştere ?!       116
Limba română – aceeaşi de milenii !…  117
Heliade – Fiul Soarelui 118
Ignoranţă academică sau antiromânism ?  119
Românii au importat şi… râme ?! 119
Antica Tamasidava de pe Siret era… ungurească !?        120
Zeul anticTamaş şi cernita Tamisa       121
Primele cuvinte – numele animalelor de vânat    122
Teoria romanizării de la Vatican ne vine !…   123
Limba dacilor – prima limbă a Europei   124
Zeul Troian – veche tradiţie rusă !!?   124
DACIA – ŢARA  ZEILOR     (Tudor Diaconu)        127
Introducere     129
„Da.kşa – Ţara Zeilor – doar o sinteză  129
România – India Pontică 130
Rama din…Ramania        131
Limba sfântă, sanscrita era limba dacilor       132
Arienii daci făceau… marketing  133
Limba vedică – limba arhaică…   134
I. ŢARA  ZEILOR  ŞI  A  CREAŢIEI        137
Dacia – leagănul arianismului vedic     137
Secrete ariene pentru… NASA     138
Înţelepciunea – în Centrul Spiritual, Ardeal…   138
Calea Zeilor  = Valea Someşului 139
Vedicul râu Vijara = Neagra Şarului     140
Dej – „oraşul de pe Râul Zeilor”        142
Preajba – paznicul Palatului    142
Legile Spartei – preluate de la nordul Dunării  143
România – Laboratorul Genetic   144
Incinta Zeilor şi… căţeluşa lui Indra   145
Muntele Omu – sanctuarul Antichităţii   146
Unitatea culturii antice – prin geţi    147
Adam s-a născut… pe Mureş       148
Cluj – oraşul de pe râul cald   149
Napoca – izvorul de apă caldă   150
Rarău – Ţara Arienilor  151
Siret – râul strălucitor, sfânt 151
IalOMiţa se iţeşte de sub Omu…  152
Uluitoarea competenţă a strămoşilor     153
Vechii egipteni gândeau… româneşte !    154
II. ARIA STRĂMOŞILOR – DE LA IND LA ATLANTIC    155
„Istoria – invadată de mişei şi trădători”      155
Grecii preluau legende de la… vedici ?  156
Animalele de hrană… unesc Europa        157
Agni Tatăl – zeul focului de la… Agni.Ta        158
Zeii vedici şi elini… trăiesc (numai) în România !      159
Danu.viu – zeu vedic al apelor  160
Ilita = Agni = zeii Soarelui = Sf. Ilie 160
Sfânta Scriptură era… ariană    161
Sciţii s-au întors ultimii în Ţara Zeilor…      162
Conflictul religios poate duce la… război atomic !      163
Învinsă de… preoţi,     164
Armata s-a retras pe primele poziţii…   164
Adevăratele „12 triburi exilate”        164
Primul rajah arian s-a întors la Braşov 165
Grecii şi romanii au învăţat limba… în India ?! 167
Lingviştii alogeni ne „învaţă” că migratorii erau mai civilizaţi !…     168
Vedele s-au născut… la Marea Neagră     169
„Dacia Preistorică” şi „Dacia  – Ţara Zeilor”   170
Coincidenţele din România… sunt sistematice     171
Ramayana – povestită de… harta României 172
Limba română – firul Ariadnei pentru Istoria Omenirii   173
Anexe   175
I. Greaca veche – un dialect român      176
II. Sanscrita – limba…românilor vedici        179
III. Românii din…Nigeria !    180

 

Their offspring account for all the major monsters of Greek mythos, including:

·       - The Nemean Lion – a lion often depicted with multiple heads
·       - Cerberus – a monstrous three-headed dog that guards the gate to Hades
·       - Ladon – a hundredPolycephaly – Mythological occurrences

Polycephaly – Greek mythology

·       - Greek mythology contains a number of multi-headed creatures. Typhon, a vast grisly monster with a hundred heads and a hundred serpents issuing from his thighs, is often described as having several offspring with Echidna, a creature with the body of a serpent but the face of a beautiful woman.-headed dragon that guards the garden of the Hesperides
·       - Chimera – sometimes depicted with the heads of a goat and a lion
·       - The Lernaean Hydra – an ancient nameless serpent-like chthonic water beast that possessed numerous heads
·       - Orthrus – a two-headed dog owned by Geryon
Other accounts state that some of these creatures were the offspring of Phorcys and Ceto. Phorcys is also said to have fathered Scylla, a giant monster with six dogs’ heads, which terrorises Odysseus and his crew.

Polycephaly – Other mythologies

·       - Balaur, a dragon in Romanian mythology, with three, seven or twelve heads
·       - Janus, a two- or four-faced god in Roman mythology
·       - Kaliya, a multi-headed snake vanquished by Krishna in Indian mythology
·       - Nehebkau, a two-headed snake in Egyptian mythology
·       - Orochi, an eight-headed snake in Japanese mythology
·       - Ravana, the ten-headed King of Lanka from the Hindu smriti Ramayana
·       - Triglav (meaning “three headed”) is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology

 

The myth of the Blajini

As Romanians generally perceived the earth as a disc, they were naturally creative enough to imagine what existed on the other side. This other earth is imagined as a mirror image of our own, and as a home to creatures called Blajini [blaˈʒinʲ] (“gentle/kind-hearted ones”), sometimes given the name Rohmani [ˈroh.manʲ] in Bucovina. They are described as anthropomorphic and short, sometimes having the head of a rat. They are either described as malicious or as having great respect for God and leading a sinless life. They are considered to fast the year through, and thus doing humans a great service.[7]
The Romanian holiday Paştele Blajinilor (the Easter of the Blajini) is a way to repay them for the benefits they bring. Since they live in isolation, they have no way of knowing when Easter comes. It is for this reason that Romanians eat dyed eggs and let the shells flow downstream, from there they believe they will get to the Apa Sâmbetei, and from there to the Blajini.[8]
Some explain them as the descendants of Adam‘s son Seth. Others state that they used to live alongside humans on the earth, but that Moses, seeing his people oppressed by them, parted the waters and, after he and his people had retreated to safety, poured the waters back onto them, sending them to their current abode.[9]

Eschatology

Romanian myths part of international culture

·       Vampire – See strigoi and moroi, which are more phantom- or wizard-like creatures.
·        (vârcolac)
·       Şobolan – A giant rat similar to the SA capybara. Rural Romanian folklore attributes the şobolan human Werewolfcharacteristics.
·       Solomonar – See Hultan and Solomonari, which were a group of nobles and wizards made famous more by the families who were members of the society then for their deeds. However, this is mainly do to the secret crusades of Christianity and their attempt to destroy all history and knowledge of these Wizards. Some of these names include Dracula Vlad, Solomon, Despina the Impure, Ty’ere, Ventruszch, Brohmyr, Izhain and Vohc.
Most of these names can be found in Romanian Lore in reference to Vampires and Dragons.

Rituals:

·       Paparuda


in folk literature

·       Baba Dochia
·       Balaur (dragon)
·       Baubau, variant form Babau (similar to the Bogeyman)
·       Căpcăun (an ogre)
·       Căţelul Pământului
·       Fata Pădurii
·       Ileana Cosânzeana
·       Iele
·       LuceafărPersonages similar to Planet Venus
·       Moroi (a type of vampire)
·       Moşul (the old man)
·       Muma Pădurii
·       Pricolici (a werewolf or demon)
·       Rohmani (or Blajini)
·       Samca
·       Solomonari
·       Sânziana (or Drăgaică)
·       Spiriduş (a sprite)
·       Stafie – similar to Ghost
·       Strigoi (a vampire or zombie)
·       Uniilă (a devil )
·       Uriaş – similar to Giant
·       Ursitoare – similar to the Fates
·       Vasilisc – similar to Basilisk
·       Vâlva
·       Vântoase (spirits of the wind)
·       Vârcolac (werewolf)
·       Zână (fairy)
·       Zburător
·       Zorilă
·       Zmeu

Heroes

·       Ber-Căciulă
·       Doamna Neaga
·       Făt-Frumos
·       Ileana Cosânzeana
·       Greuceanu
·       Iovan Iorgovan
·       Ler Imparat
·       Luana
·       Baba Novac

List of folk dances


ROMANIAN MYTHOLOGY
Motto: “Truth needs only two groups of people to surface: some to express it and others to hear it.” (Henry THOREAU)
The well-known Greek historian, Herodotus, used to say the following about Thracians: “…after the Indians, the Thracian people constituted the largest ethnicity among all the rest of the world’s races. Should they benefit from one ruling only and be spiritually united, they might acceed to become, in my opinion, absolutely undefeatable and to surpass, by far, the greatness of all the other Earth’s proud races. The Thracians bear many names, each one according to their living regions, yet all of them show, through almost everything, highly similar customs”. But, if Herodotus’ knowledge was limited to some 19 Thracian tribes, another historian, Strabon, was nevertheless, depicting no fewer than 22 tribes! Obviously, among such a rich variety of tribal social life forms, some religious differences must have existed, which can no longer be known today. The point is that the Thracian race was great throughout all the Antiquity, and famed because of their physical resistence and their overall skills regarding traditional medicine. A proof of the latter would be to quote Socrates, the great Greek plilosopher, who was once confessing to have personally learned, straight from one of Zalmoxis’ apprentices, an incantation of those “ABLE TO MAKE HUMAN BEINGS IMMORTALS”. Much later, across centuries, Clement from Alexandria was reproaching to the Greeks a “lack of originality” within their own civilization, and that these would have learned from Thracians their curative incantation formulas: “Sanas incantationes a Thracibulus accepisti” (in Latin, from: Clement of Alexandria, “Appeal Towards Nations”, Migne, page 18, column 175b).
THE DIVINITIES: THE GREAT GOD GEBELEIZIS AND THE GREAT GODDESS BENDIS
Gebeleizis, or Nebeleizis, was the Thracians’ Supreme Divinity lightning constituting only one of the “weapons” that this he was said to have used. He was represented through the shape of a handsome sculptural male, occasionally wearing a beard. Gebeleizis provoked thunder and lightning. In some representations, he appears seated on a majestic throne, while in others on horseback, holding an arch in his left hand. A snake is seen coming down versus the horse’s head. He is also accompanied, at times, by a one-horned vulture. The vulture holds a fish in its beak symbolizing the named Divinity by itself, and also has a rabbit entrapped within its claws. This God embodies the Absolute Master upon Heaven and Earth, the Patron of military aristocracy. He might possess, though, some Uranian- Solar attributes. The Supreme God, the Great God Gebeleizis is also known under the nicknames of Derzelas, Derzis or the Thracian Knight (others consider “THE THRACIAN KNIGHT” as being a later apparition of some Hero, and not of a God). Other times, the God shows up in the hypostasis of a warrior horseman, accompanied by a faithful hound. He holds a spear as an insignia of power, which is ready to be thrown upon a wild boar from the horse’s gallop. When not being shown under a warrior or hunter’s appearance, he appears as a peaceful horseman, carrying either a torch or a cornu copia. Sometimes, he is presented as having three heads (Tricephalus), alike the accompanying hound, while othertimes as a blessing God, having his right hand’s first three fingers risen or opened, the rest being tightened towards the upper palm. He shows up in these ways within all epigraphic and numismatic testimonies found at the ancient cities of Histria and Odesos (the latter presently called Varna). At Limanu (Constanta County), Derzelas appears shown on horseback, as he similarly may be seen on the Racatau and Zimnicea old pottery, or the Bucharest-Herastrau and Surcea (Constanta County again) discovered hoards.
We shall also encounter him later throughout the Antique world, at the Macedonians -”Macedonian Horseman”, while Greek Mithology would similarly carry him under the supreme name of Zeus. From Thracia, Gebeleizis’ cult had spread to penetrate inside Asia Minor during 7th century B.C., where it was promptly assimilated by Armenians up to becoming their National Divinity, namely Vahagn or the God of War, most famous for his courage in slaying dragons. Vahagn was associated with lightning and thunder, being represented like an imposing man with hair and beard carved out of flames, while “his eyes were scintillating like two Suns”. Ultimately, Gebeleizis or “the Thracian Knight”, who is to be found in other people’s Mithologies as Zeus or Vahagn, has been logically assimilated by Christian nations to become… Saint George (or Gheorghe) killing the Dragon!
The Supreme male Divinity of Geta-Dacians Gebeleizis, later referred to, at the Lower-Danube area Thracians under the likely Greekenized name of Zbelsurdos, also goes by having a feminine alter-ego, a double named BENDIS, the Great Goddess. Ancient representations, recently discovered, show her to our eyes through the face of a full-figured woman, with prominent cheek bones and curly hair either plaited into two tresses or splitted into two big curls surrounding her lovely looks. Is it really possible that the Goddess Bendis, with her two very long blond tresses gently resting on her back, might actually be a predecessor of the fairy Ileana Cosanzeana, from the later-born popular tales of Romanians? In certain situations, the Goddess appears standing between two sacred animals, which are either deers-like, or between a buck and a snake. The Great Goddess Bendis was mostly adored by Thracian women, for she was embodying the Goddess of Moon, Forests and… Magical charms. A head of the Goddess was discovered at Costesti, while archaeological digging around ruins of the old Sarmisegetuza fortress has brought to light a burned-clay made medallion (measuring 10 cm in diameter and 1.5 cm thickness) showing a Goddess bust with a quiver on shoulder. One of her bronze made busts was discovered at Piatra Rosie, measuring 14.7 cm in height and 13 cm width.
Besides the Supreme God Gebeleizis and the Great Goddess Bendis, Thracians have also had a Divinity of Flames and Fireplace and Guardian of the House, respectively the Goddess VESTA (or Hestia, Histia), to the veneration of whom Thracian houses were built strictly in a rectangular form with stoned or wooden walls. The floor was of trodden soil and had a “two-angle” roof. Not far away from Tartaria region, inside the triangular area of the three “Crish” rivers, astounding remains of the first surface dwellings dating from as early as fifth millenium B.C. have been recently uncovered, meaning they were no less than 7000 years old! These types of dwellings, which would spread afterwards through the entire world, indeed seemed to have been the result of a cult dedicated to this Goddess. The walls were initially meant to protect the sacred space within, and in the middle, flames were lit in a fireplace which were constantly taken care of to keep alight.
The fourth millenium B.C. wasn’t exactly a lucky one for the future-to-be Romanian people, stated the experts referring themselves to the crumbling period of the legendary continental bridge which was linking Europe with Asia Minor. This bridge collapsed under the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, thus leaving plenty of room for the formation of a brand new sea, named the Egean Sea. This generated as well a multitude of larger and smaller islands. Due to the very existence of this terrestrial linking bridge, both ancient and modern Greek historians were entitled to acknowledge the possibility of a migration for the Thracian population from the Pontic-Danubian region to the South of the Balcan Peninsula, and from there, towards Asia Minor itself, reaching to some lands around the Eastern Mediterranean such as Bytinia, Missia, Phrygia, Throada, Lydia etc. As it is known today, the fate of each of these civilizations evolved quite differently. Some “lost themselves” among more numerous tribes and completely “vanished” as national identity inside History’s immense pit called “forgetfulness”-the Hititians, for instance. Others disappeared at vast distances, as is the Trojans’ case, about whom a legend (Virgilius’ “Aeneida”) tells how Aeneas, the Thracian, guided the survivors of Troja fortress’ doomsday up to the Tybrus River’s narrow valley on the Italic Peninsula, where they took over Seven “eternal” Hills and afterwards, gave them Thracian “Latin” names. Still, another legend states that within the Carpathian Space, an extremely wise sheperd, Zalmoxis, showed up who was to take over “the Noble Laws” (that is, the “Beleagin’s Code”) from the Goddess Hestia (or Vesta).
Zalmoxis-A PROPHETICAL GOD OR A WORSHIPPED PROPHET
Here are Herodotus’ testimonies on Zalmoxis: “According to what I have found out from the (ancient) Greeks living on the shores of Helespontus and Pontus Euxinus (which is today known as the Black Sea), the Zalmoxis whom I’m talking about, being just a mortal, was actually a former slave on Samos Island, specifically belonging to Phytagoras, son of Menesarcos. Being granted, afterwards, free man’s status from his grateful master, he would skillfully amass large riches and would return to his homeland after accumulating enough wealth, where he would build a large mansion meant to host important gatherings and personally receiving these people and summoning the Thracian land’s leaders to party. Meanwhile, preaching everybody that none of them, or their descendants would ever die for real, but everybody was to go to a certain place instead, where they would indeed live forever and enjoy all the finest meals and pleasures which they would only dream of. As he was accomplishing all the already mentioned deeds and was saying such things to the crowds, he secretly ordered an underground residence to be constructed for himself. When it was ready, Zalmoxis disappeared from the nucleus of Thracian social life and descended to his underground “bunker”. He lived there for about three or four years. The Thracians thought he had vanished and wanted him back dearly, lamenting his loss as if he were really dead. At the end of his 4th year, Zalmoxis appeared once more to their eyes, thus managing to make his teachings believable through some kind of “personal example”. Regarding Zalmoxis’ background itself and his underground hiding shelter, I personally don’t fully reject everything that is said, but don’t believe too much in it either. It seems to me, though, that he might have actually lived many years before Phytagoras’ time.So let Zalmoxis be well, whatever he represents, either a human being or some Demon of the Geta (namely Thracian) people” (Herodotus, “Histories”, volume IV, pages 94-95). As we can see, the naive identification of God Zalmoxis with one of Pythagoras’ slaves, who became afterwards free and wealthy, is being disputed even by Herodotus himself. Why should WE believe it then?…
Similar accounts are also made by Hellanicos from Mithilenes, by the Great Plato, Mnasea (this last one was even considering Zalmoxis as the Eternity God Chronos!), Diodorus from Sicily, Strabon mostly, Apulleius, Lucianus from Samosatas, Orygenes, Porphyrius (232-304) and Julian the Apostle, Aeneas from Ghaza, and Hesychios from Alexandria. All of them heard and discussed about Zalmoxis who remained within people’s memories as a God of the so-called “Underworld Kingdom”, as being otherwise suggestively described by the Romanian National Poet, Mihai Eminescu, in his poem “The Phantoms”:
“On a huge Throne carved in rock, sits rigidly, pale, yet straight,
With his hand holding the Staff, the Pagan and righteous Priest…”
Lithuanians, at their turn, are going to take over “our” Zalmoxis as God Zemeuks, the name signifying “Land” or “Country”. He still represents the God of the Earth’s depths, but nevertheless the God of vegetation and fertility, the God of ploughmen and sheperds. But, if Gebeleizis was promising them only the immortality of spirit (for the ritual of cremating dead ones on funeral pyres is associated to his cult), Zalmoxis was yet overgranting to his faithfuls COMPLETE IMMORTALITY, both for the soul and body (the funeral procedure being, in this case, burial), while the believers’ spirits would keep on living inside the Kingdom of the Underworld God (just alike Harald’s, the teen-ager King, next to Maria’s, the Danubian Queen, from the same poem “Phantoms” of our Great Eminescu).
The concept of Zamolxian immortality was representing the very Ethics’ concept among all young warriors of the “the Dacian (Thracian) Wolves”, who were enjoying the imminent Death’s perspective and were even laughing at it, precisely in order to show their indifference towards such an event and their looking forward to faster reaching God’s underground meadows. These youngsters were fighting and dying joyfully under the “Wolf’s Head” Dacian banner, which we would also encounter at the Macedonians, as well as at the so-called “Roman ” legions later, that had actually been formed from Thracians living within boundaries of the Roman-occupied territories.
Human sacrifices for religious purposes had proven to be quite singular in Europe, and one can find them strictly among Thracians. With this perspective in mind, most interesting appears to be a certain similarity with the Aztec civilization’s religious traditions, about whose civilization Edgar Cayce was surely stating that they would be direct descendants of the “Atlantis” people (namely, inhabitants of former ancient continent Atlantida, from which the very last portion of land went down in the middle of Atlantic Ocean, through a huge disaster, some 12,600 years ago). Should this peculiar resemblance provide a clue, with respect to a very close friend’s suggestion in supporting the presumed joint origin between Central America’s Indians and Thracians?… Once every five years, Zalmoxis was sent a kind of “messenger” who was to inform the God on the people’s wishes. The chosen one, some young warrior of great physical beauty, unparalleled courage in battles and untainted morality, was thrown into three sharpened spears belonging to his fellow warriors. Should he have had the bad luck not to die instantly, he would be insulted and mocked while another “herald” was prepared and immediately “sent” to personally deliver his message to the Underworld God.
While Zalmoxis represented a God of the “Underworld”, Gebeleizis was the “Heavenly” God. The discoveries in Orastie Mountains, as well as of the Great Circular Sanctuary within the Sarmisegetuza (Dacians’ main fortress), with its pillars’ regular disposal, lead us to assume that some celestial examination was also carried out. Archaeological excavations done under the Cluj native historian Constantin Daicoviciu’s supervision have brought to light, within the Gradistea Muscelului area (Orastie Mountains), not only an entire complex of Sanctuaries but also a likely original Dacian calendar, and also the remains of a staircase which was, probably, leading towards an underground place of religious cult.
From a wise man such as Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher quoted by one of his peers, namely Plato, we learn about Zalmoxis to have been, besides a brilliant psychotherapist, also a… magician. Overall, a person to whom our forefathers owe their spiritual status through one of the most righteous and human social order Antiquity has ever had. For we have been indeed a kind of “spiritual State”, ambivalent creation of the ones initiated by Zalmoxis and of the Great Priests from Kogaion, the Holy Mountain, a reason for which our boundaries lasted always virtually unchanged, even if, at times, either some civilization overlappings or brief artificial territorial divisions might have occured. As Alexandru Strachina has said, in his book “Trailing the Forgotten Ancestors”: “Water flows by, yet … WE remain”. And it is merely odd how most of our modern historians are still able to justify their naked indifference towards all these blatant facts.
In order to better outline the existence of a SOLAR CULT among Thraco-Geta-Dacians, along her book, “Romanian Archaic Linguistic References”, Dr. Mariana Marcu mentions “the Thracian Horseman” HEROS, also cited in some Egyptian epigraphic documents (as HEROUS, son of the Solar God Amon Ra himself), while several other researchers have argued that this Divinity would represent nothing else but a newer hypostasis of Horus!… The Thracian Knight’s Myth appears difficult to understand. Sometimes, his head is shown surrounded by a Solar halo, a four-leaves rosette. It was assimilated by the Greek population at once with their arrival within the Balcan Peninsula, between 1900-1400 B.C., as Zeus (Helios), the Supreme Divinity, also known under other names like Nefelegeretes (actually, the Greek version of Nebeleizis) -meaning “the One who Gathers Clouds”, Ombryos -”the Rain Maker”, Keraunos -”the One who Lightens” and some more. Within the entire Romanian tradition (that includes Dacian-Romanian, Aromanian, Macedonian), the Thracian Knight’s Myth makes an almost canonical scenario of the old Christmas Carols in winter.
An astonished Mr. C. Cinodaru was noticing that Thracians used to hold so-called “PAGAN CELEBRATIONS” during entire APRIL, precisely organized in order to honor THE THRACIAN HERO. Simultaneously with Christianity’s consolidation within the Thraco-Dacian zone, this celebration has been replaced with “Saint George’s” (“Saint Gheorghe’s”), a holiness whose iconography was apparently inspired by that of the “Thracian Knight”. Though, in certain Christmas Carols, Saint Gheorghe and Jesus’ names misteriously interchange, creating in this way a total discrepancy between the Carol’s greeting verses and their supposedly singing time, respectively the Winter season:
“Along the Sun’s river meadows
Grow white-bluish apple flowers.
It’s God’s flower garden essence,
Whitish flowers, apple flowers,
Apple essence, whitish flowers.”
Or:
“…His black spurry little horse
Glistening like some raven,
Still his arrow-style cut bonnet,
Bent upon the eyes
Or his mighty spear,
Summer everlasting,
Evening flash of lightning…” 
Anybody can see that nothing is mentioned within this so-called “Christmas Carol”, which might suggest the Winter period. Yet, summertime appears to be explicitly recollected, as well as an extra quotation of “the Evening Flash of Lightning”, namely what was the Thracian God Gebeleizis’ symbol. Do you still have any doubts left about it? Within other Romanian Christmas Carol cycles, besides a personification of the Sun itself, the Sun’s elder “sister”, Salomina, shows up also. Nevertheless, the bride of the Hero coming back from hunting was named Ileana Daliana, or sometimes Lina Melina. We should remember here the Spring time for the Solar God’s Celebration at the Thraco-Dacian tribes, just like its environmental background appears clearly pointed out along these “Christmas Carols” narrating, in fact, the time of Nature’s rebirth and flourishing of “the apple whitish flowers”.
And if within this mythological Romanian-Pelasgian, Thracian or Geta-Dacian puzzle, you choose to name it, we have been successful in discovering, together, our forgotten Faith in the Great God Gebeleizis, the Great Goddess Bendis or Histia, the Goddess of Flames and Fireplace, you still wouldn’t have been told the essential unless we also mentioned a Great God of War’s existence, namely ARES. The famous Black Sea-exiled Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (43 B.C.-17 A.D.) speaks in his writings about the “Geta individual” next door who was worshipping Ares (an equivalent to the Roman War God Marte), while another Roman, Vegetius, comes to proclaim, no more or less, that “the God Marte has been born from within Thracian Land”. And, should we also pay respect to Jordanes’ declarations, who was stating that “the Geta people have always adored Marte through an extremely savage cult, killing war prisoners as sacrifices dedicated to His glory…”, why should WE wonder then how VLAD THE IMPALER, whom Americans love to call “DRACULA” through Bram Stoker’s work of factual History distortion, used to punish the Turkish invaders on Romanian soil by “practicing” his gruesome, Middle Age habit on around 40,000 living prisoners daily?!… On the other hand, on the Roman Emperor Trajan’s bas-relief sculpted Column in Rome is presented, probably, the most ancient Warrior God ever, looking grim and ferocious, constantly soliciting a great number of human sacrifices to His glorifying pleasure. Here also appears the barbarian scene of Roman war prisoners being tortured by… Dacian women!
At the South of Danube River, Thracian civilization living around the area used to celebrate as well DIONYSUS, the Grape-Vine Divinity, Patron of the well-known dizzying liquor, whose cult has again been taken over “en passant” by the Greeks who, by this time, were fair-spirited enough in reminding the World that, shortly before Dionysus’ coming back home in Thracia, he had initiated himself on Phrygian mysteries at the insistences of His grandmother! Besides the grape-vine, the ivy counted as well among this God’s favorite plants. Leaves of the latter, chewed by His extremely “hot” worshippers in combination with large wine quantities, were inducing within those not only drunkeness but even a temporary stage of madness, a mania. Thus, the fact that by far the Thracians’ most popular celebration was dedicated precisely to THIS God shouldn’t look so surprising. It was annually held in the Autumn, once the grape-vine harvest and grape squeezing were in full progress (some researchers argue, though, it might have taken place once every three years). The night when wine was finally boiling was actually the party’s proper night, at the torches’ light, and everyone would drink merrily, keeping the party on going this way well into dawn. Maybe this is why Thracians were widely said to be polygamous men. Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes each of them as supportively keeping several wives. Should a “Head of Household” have died, his surviving women were also to face an essential challenge, respectively one mostly beloved by the deceased had to be on the spot identified, so that the closest relative could strangle her in order to be buried along with the late husband. Yet, all other remaining women were simultaneously experiencing genuine pain and great shame not to have been selected as the chosen one (Herodotus-”Histories”, fiftth volume, pages 5, 8).
Opposite to the Grape-Vine God’s wanton celebration, lasting through centuries was the cult of THE THRACIAN PRIEST, a relevant symbol for the beautiful, future life’s acceptation, which was to be dedicated as well to human beings as to all other creatures’ welfare. Thus, “THE SPHYNX”, a giant megalithical rock standing alone on the Bucegi Mountains’ upper platform and having this peculiar shape, was representing, to all Geta people, no less than the so-called “NIGHT MASTER”, an entity later acquired by the same ancient Greeks as ORPHEUS. On another hand, every ancient author has written that “the Orphical Mysteries” were indeed celebrated during night time. However, due to their esotherism, Geta-Thracian Religion’s elevated concepts were only acquainted to the Great Priests surrounded by a few initiated elite members. The Greek and Roman writers couldn’t have left too much information about it, while being totally denied access within the Zamolxian mysteries.
Now, let us return to the “Night Master’s” credo, a highly civilizing belief in Music able to tame not only humans, but nevertheless animals, by either cooling down their violent impulses or just soothing the evil instincts inside. Strabon, the already mentioned reputed historian, was also familiar with the last detail on such Pelasgian Priests, or “Prophets”, namely telling us that these ones were omniscient men, truly skilled upon the dreams, Oracle prophecies and Divine signs’ interpretation, who used to live in specially carved Underground Sanctuaries (called “katagoian”, or “kagoian”). Regarding Orpheus’ origins themselves, several Greek and Roman legends state that he WAS too a Thracian, “Prince of the Kyconian people” (which makes a perfect ethnical correspondent to the “Kogoian” term). Orpheus’ native fortress is said to be Dion, and thus his descent comes from the legendary “Kogoian”, Zalmoxis’ Sanctuary.
THRACIAN SANCTUARIES
The whole mythical “PANGAION”, or “PANGEUL” MOUNTAIN was said to be a sacred place to all Southern Danube area’s living Thracian population. On this holy location there supposedly existed a multitude of Sanctuaries, particularly because the mountain also contained plenty of richnesses, such as Gold and Silver lodes. It is assumed to have been situated somewhere within the Dragojon Massif, located in the Oriental Rodophes (a native place, also, for… Spartacus, the Pelasgian gladiator who was to fight and die hard for shaking the very foundations of Roman Empire). Other Sanctuaries were also discovered at Kilicine. Still, logically speaking, similar worshipping places must have existed and been dedicated to the glory of Great Goddess Bendis… if Thracians living in Athens, that is far away from their homeland, were nevertheless able to build a “Bendideion” for their Goddess. For the legendary Pangaion, as a main Thracian worshipping premise, seems to have been exclusively dedicated to Gebeleizis, whose Uranian- Solar Priests, the otherwise called “Wanderers through Clouds”, were arguing the human body to be nothing else but the “spirit’s prison”, the only salvation for the soul being its liberation from the “reclusive” corpse.
Should we quote Adrian Bucurescu in accordance with his work, “The Secret Dacia”, the LEGENDARY KOGAION was represented exactly by that mountain which was sheltering a cave where the Pelasgian Great Priest sought at times, refuge and confinement. Strabon writes inside his “Geography” (volume VII, pages 3-5) the following: “…In the same way, this Mountain has also been acknowledged as Sacred, and its very Geta name properly reflects the fact already mentioned: its name, Kogaion, is just alike the River’s flowing near by. “KOG-A-ION” signifies “THE MAGNIFICENT’S HEAD”, defining also the Bucegi Mountains’ Platform where a mammoth sculpted mysterious stone head, covered with some kind of holy cap and locally known as “the Romanian Sphynx”, is still to be found”. Now, the river flowing “near by”, at the mountain’s proximity and which Strabon was depicting, couldn’t have been another one but the Ialomitza, also called by Geta people through the name “Naparis”, meaning “the Heavenly One” or “the Divine One”. Yet, the one and only Geta-Thracian inscription explicitly referring to the name of Kogaion appears today to be a single text, made of Orphical versets, on a brick discovered at Romula (Resca, Dobrosloveni, inside the Olt County), sounding as follows: “Great is the God, always and everywhere! Thus should the Heros say, while looking towards Kogaion! Let the Disciples (namely, new recruits) sing: Holy is the Night Master!”
When Strabon used to carefully remind his readers about Dacian Priests living in underground shelters, he was actually referring to THE PRIESTS OF Zalmoxis, the same UNDERWORLD GOD who, from within KOGAION, was offering to his followers a THOROUGH IMMORTALITY, extending itself over body and soul as well. And should THE SPHYNX from Bucegi have represented, for the ancient Geta people, Orpheus’ Head, either sculpted by human hands or moulded through some natural phenomena, at any rate it WAS, and WILL EXIST there FOREVER, within the Land of legendary Kogaion, always creating mysteries and spreading a majestic quietness.
Ultimately, I sincerely hope to have succeeded in sketching a complete Mythological Pantheon of our Forgotten Forefathers, either Pelasgians, Thracians or Geta-Dacians, as you choose to name them. Any so-called “Trajanic”, “Latin” and “Slavonic” topics don’t really belong to US, yet they were subsequently added within time by:
1). any of those willing to generate delusion and minimize the Carpatho-Danubian area population’s essential role to the later development of European Civilization, by suggesting that Romania’s present corresponding geographical region was not at all the very starting point, the civilization’s cradle, but only an obscure province of the now fallen Roman Empire;
2). the ones to have always wanted some territorial revendication upon Romania’s various regions, claims that were to be, somehow, vindicated, the only arguments capable of winning ignorants and fools’ confidence being the ones related to “origins”, “language”, “religion” and “history”, last one most easily in being mystified;
3). any of those affiliated to special groups of interest, regarding another World’s geopolitical division and, as a result, being directly concerned in undermining both the importance and influence which the Romanian people’s millenary civilization and culture still own among the Great Family of Nations around the Globe.
There exists, nevertheless, a so-called “FATE OF TRUTH”, and, just as THOREAU has once cleverly pointed out, this one “needs only two groups of people to surface: some to EXPRESS IT and… others to HEAR IT”.
“Indo-European Poetry and Myth” by W. L. West was published by Oxford University Press in 2007. Contents: 0. Introduction 1. Poet and Poesy 2. Phrase and Figure 3. Gods and Goddesses 4. Sky and Earth 5. Sun and Daughter 6. Storm and Stream 7. Nymphs and Gnomes 8. Hymns and Spells 9. Cosmos and Canon 10. Mortality and Fame 11. King and Hero 12. Arms and the Man

George Anca


http://georgeanca.blogspot.com/

http://georgeanca.blogspot.com/

11 Feb
2012

“Emilia Ţuţuianu pluteşte între astral şi teluric, între solar şi floral…”

 
“Emilia Ţuţuianu pluteşte între astral şi teluric, între solar şi floral, între ardere şi îngheţ, într-un monism de creaţie ce-şi serbează, deopotrivă triumful şi neliniştile de amurg…”
 
                         Emilia Ţuţuianu
 

Emilia Ţuţuianu – absolventă a Liceului “Roman-Vodă” din oraşul Roman, licenţiată a Universităţii “Al.I.Cuza” din Iaşi, Facultatea  de Filozofie, Secţia Relaţii Publice (2005), specializarea socio-psihopedagogie. Consemnată  în Istoria literaturii române de la origini până în prezent, de Ion Rotaru: „Apreciez mult de tot delicateţa, inefabilul şi suavul lirism, nu neapărat în descendenţa Dumitru Anghel ori Şt.Iosif ci într-un chip cu totul original, absolut personal..pe care îl ascunde, fericită proprietară a unei comori inestimabile… Îi profetizez o mare, strălucită carieră de prozatoare…lirică“. Iar prof. univ. dr. emerit Tudor Ghideanu notează: „Aidoma revelaţiei lui Dan Laurenţiu, regretatul poet-filosof, cu ale sale Poziţia aştrilor, şi mai ales cu Ave Eva, Emilia Ţuţuianu pluteşte între astral şi teluric, între solar şi floral, între ardere şi îngheţ, într-un monism de creaţie ce-şi serbează, deopotrivă triumful şi neliniştile de amurg”. Obţine locul II la concursul “Dor de Dor”, Ipoteşti 2010, secţinea reportaj literar.

 
 

Acasă

O frunză…şi-ncă o frunză…şi apoi, rar şi încet, altele se deprindeau din coroana copacului din faţa Universităţii, întorcându-se spre pământul care le hrănise. Nu, nu mai voiau să fie regine, să privească de sus lumea, voiau să se amestece cu iarba verde de acasă,   cu ghinda, cu castanele care-şi anunţau venirea pe pământ cu pocnete ce marcau triumful coacerii fructului.

Doreau să fie una cu pământul, să simtă şi ele paşii grei ai oamenilor împovăraţi de gânduri.

Privind la jocul frunzelor, Ioana îşi dădu seama că îi plăcuse întotdeauna toamna.  Pentru ea era un anotimp ciudat: bogat şi trist, paradoxal – vesel şi plin de regrete.

Simţea chemarea …

Locurile copilăriei o doreau.

Gata!…Hotărârea a fost luată!…Va porni spre casa bunicilor, cuibul fericirii ei.   

Ajunse spre seară, când soarele scăpăta spre asfinţit, aruncând ca un bulgăre de foc ultimele raze de soare peste casa de la poalele muntelui…

Crepusculul cobora în cascadă de nori negri

Acel negru al dezolării neputincioase, care izbucneşte parcă din dezlănţuirea lăuntrului…

Cu aviditatea orbului, Ioana privea cerul pentru a-i fura o fărâmă de lumină.

Pe andaluziene cărări de aducere aminte, pornea singură, în liniştea nopţii…

Se trezeau în ea toate amărăciunile, şi amintirile  unei vieţi, ce a trecut ca tăvălugul peste fiinţa ei,  lăsând în urmă şanţuri adânci.

 „Viaţa se iveşte din pământ şi dacă nu iubeşti viaţa, rădăcinile tale nu se vor putea înfinge niciodată destul de adânc pentru a zămisli ce-i frumos şi drept. Fiecare fiinţă este un  pom …”  aude de departe, peste timp, glasul bunicului…

Păşind prin iarba mătăsoasă spre iazul copilăriei sale, copleşită de emoţiile trecutului, parcă îi aude vocea caldă, blândă  cu care o răsfăţa…

Dragostea bunicilor i-a aprins în suflet o lumină, ce i-a încălzit fiorul amintirilor…

Acum totul se schimbase, trecuse, şi orice ar fi făcut nu o mai putea ajuta. Sufletul îi era plin de gânduri şi frig…Strângând pumnii şi închizând ochii, simţi că nu mai are pe cine chema, pe cine striga…

„Când lumina din suflet arde, lumea toată se umple de iubire”. – aude vocea bunicii ce-i trezeşte în interiorul fiinţei fioruri adânci…Cohorte temporale ale unor defilări de imagini secvenţiale, se succedau prin sufletul ei…Era ca o relaţie comunicaţională bilaterală, între trecut şi prezent, care o  învăluia şi o copleşea în egală măsură.

Gândindu-se la viaţa bunicilor ei, îşi dădu seama că nu va putea exista o explicaţie simplă a tot ceea ce a fost.

Bunica făcea parte dintre bătrânii înţelepţi ai timpurilor. Poate că visase să ajungă ceva în viaţă…dar lumea satului, avea pe-atunci legile ei nescrise.

O fată era măritată de la vârstă timpurie. Ceva zestre.. şi-un om gospodar.. şi gata – la căsătorie!.

Dar, ea era însetată de cunoaştere. Îi plăcea să citească foarte mult. Îşi formase o mică bibliotecă pe care o considera un bun numai al ei, un altar, la care ea nu înălţa rugăciuni, ci primea sentimente, trăiri şi descoperea taine,  pe care nu şi le putea explica.

Acolo Ioana a citit primele cărţi. În rafturile ce miroseau încă a lemn de brad i-a descoperit pe I.Creangă, M.Eminescu, A.Vlahuţă, M.Eliade,I.Slavici, C.Negruzzi, R.Cioflec, C.Ghiban, dar şi pe Balzac (cu toată istoria pitorească a Franţei, începând cu sec. al XIV şi ajungând până în sec al XVII-lea), apoi V.Hugo cu cartea sa „Omul care râde”, o carte la care de multe ori s-a oprit descifrând noi şi noi sensuri despre viaţă – şi pe care bunica o compara cu acea imagine „mască” ce   fiecare om o poartă în adâncurile sale – dar şi pe A.Dumas, S.A.Tokarev, şi mulţi alţii.

Ioana întinse o mână …luă o carte – fila-i îngălbenită- şi-i pare că în ea regăseşte umbra degetelor aspre de muncă ale fiinţei îndrăgite de ea. Simte din    nou mirosul de măr, apoi ca-ntr-o avalanşă de parfumuri se cufundă în mireasma  perelor busuioace, a gutuilor şi acea mireasmă o face să retrăiască clipele nemuritoare ce i le-a dăruit ea – bunica.

Anii, timpul, ploaia, a luat câte ceva….Multe au intrat în pământ, dar restul a devenit parfumul amintirilor, de care nu se va putea despărţi niciodată.

Aveau o casă mică, cu pereţii albi, cu un pătul pentru fân şi animale, în care nu de puţine ori se ascundea, pentru a-i face să o caute…

În faţa casei se întindea o pădure tânără de brad peste care se revărsa cerul cu norii pufoşi şi albi  ca nişte fesuri de pitici.

De cum venea primăvara toate se trezeau  din somnul iernii: copacii, tufişurile, stâncile, totul mişca, se frământa prinzând viaţă…Verdele copacilor devenea intens şi mireasma pământului pătrundea până în adâncurile fiinţei ei…Atunci, Ioana avea senzaţia că inima ei era o colibă cu miros de măr, în care căuta mereu, ca un pisoi care adulmecă imaginile celor dragi…

Lângă casă se întindea o livadă de meri…Acea livadă a devenit un contor al timpului, al copilăriei, al vieţii …

Ioana ştia că livada a fost munca şi bucuria bunicului. În limbajul aspectului, al formei, a culorii, fiecare copac îi destăinuia frământările lui.     

În ochii albaştri, cu o privire care urca încet pe  sub pleoape, Ioana a   simţit  toată dragostea şi înţelegerea pe care  bunicul o avea pentru livada lui.

Era micuţ, cu talia mlădioasă şi mersul legănat…Faţa îi era plinuţă, veşnic agitată – când blândă, când aprigă…Mâinile mari, osoase, arse de soare, erau cartea deschisă asupra trăirilor din suflet…Ele conturau gesturile, vorbele, gândurile…

Axioma după care se orienta în viaţă pornea de la dragoste, dragostea lui pentru femeia lui, pentru copii lui, pentru livada lui.

„Numai dragostea e cea care te leagă de  cei de lângă tine.. şi de  viaţa”- spunea adesea el.

Minciuna, penibilul, era ceva străin de existenţa lui…A trăit simplu, dezvoltându-ţi calităţile dăruite de Dumnezeu, şi a lăsat în urmă amintirea datoriei împlinite.

       Afinitatea dintre bunici a fost mereu pentru Ioana o taină…Dăruindu-şi totul, ei şi-au clădit un adăpost pentru o  iubire de o viaţă. În ziua când femeia i-a plecat spre stele, cel rămas a continuat să existe doar ca un suflet rupt în două…

„Fiecare om are un înger, lui trebuie să-i spunem tot adevărul, altfel el nu mai trece să te vadă” – spunea bunica.

Şi, nu puţine au fost  nopţile ce au trecut prin sufletul bunicului,  vorbindu-i acelui înger despre singurătatea lui!

Ioana se ridică…Iazul reflecta lumina lunii şi farmecul nopţii o durea…Frumuseţea acelor locuri lovea asemenea unei săbii cu două tăiuşuri…

Iubea acest loc!.. Venise aici pentru a prinde curaj…Dar toţi plecaseră în lumea umbrelor…Numai pădurile rămaseră…

Întrebări chinuitoare o înăbuşeau…Aici era casa ei ! Rădăcinile fiinţei ei.

„Când eşti dezamăgită, când sufletul ţi-e ostenit de necazuri să nu adormi, să deschizi ochii, să te uiţi la tot ce-i viu în jurul tău şi să-ţi spui: vreau să fac cutare şi cutare lucru. Şi cu răbdare şi muncă ai să reuşeşti. Altminteri… ” – se auzi de  departe glasul bunicului…

Acum înţelegea dezamăgirea, singurătatea, durerea pricinuită de nimicuri…Simţea mirosul răşinii şi simţea că aici era locul ei, căminul ei…Dar nu mai erau cei care îi dăruiseră atâta iubire, atâta bunătate…Cei care o învăţaseră că dragostea trebuie să fie curată  nu numai în ochii lumii, ci în faţa propriei sale conştiinţe, şi că trebuie împărtăşită cu cinste…

Gândul acesta era ca o orgă ale cărei sunete armonioase  ţâşneau în acorduri şi dezacorduri cu întreaga ei fiinţă …

Ghemuindu-se în ea, Ioana, copleşită de scurgerea materială a timpului, simţi în  trupul şi sufletul ei puterea aripilor pentru un nou zbor…

Un sturz cânta în desişul pădurii şi cântecul lui părea a spune „priveşte, sunt fericit, viaţa e atât de frumoasă”  – se cutremură uşor, ca şi cum s-ar fi împlinit o profeţie…

Clopotele mănăstirii Râşca răsunau în noapte…Cu privirea pierdută pe cerul întunecat Ioana simţea puternic mirosul de iarbă, de răşină de brad, simţea răsuflarea pământului.Se gândeşte pentru o clipă, răzleţ, la povestea gnosticilor care vorbesc despre coborârea sufletelor printre planete către pământ, adunând în drumul lor elementele de care are nevoie pentru viaţa umană…

Trăise destule întâmplări care să o pună în gardă împotriva  acelor „calităţi” întâlnite la oameni…

Nu mai era copila facil încrezătoare din tinereţe. Întâmplări dureroase, sau fericite i-au marcat viaţa, răsplătind-o cu  galoanele maturizării…

Copilăria fusese un scurt şi mic eden. Doar dragostea bunicilor a rămas reală, caldă, adevărată în faţa timpului care a trecut…Ea i-a dăruit mirosul de măr al vieţii, al iubirii, al plenitudinii…A făcut-o să reziste sugestibilităţii înrobitoare, tentaţiilor contaminatoare, trecând peste obstacole cu multă înţelegere şi răbdare….Pentru o clipă îi veni în minte o mică întâmplare pe care a trăit-o demult, când era doar la o fragedă vârstă   a  înţelesurilor.

Urma cursurile de balet…Trecând prin dificultăţi materiale nu a putut să-şi cumpere încălţămintea necesară…Şi-a cusut atunci, cu ajutorul unei croitorese pricepute, o pereche de opincuţe albe de vinilin, pe care spera să le poarte, până şi-ar fi cumpărat altele. .…Dar nu a fost să fie aşa. Profesoara care o antrena, când a zărit „creaţia” din picioarele ei a izbucnit în modulaţii sonore: „ce înseamnă asta?.. e o jignire adusăsportului… să nu mai intri în clasă…”- cuvintele curgeau pe un ton ofensat şi se înfigeau în sufletul copilului de câţiva anişori.

Peste câteva zile, locul ei era ocupat de altcineva, care purta în picioare ceea ce profesoara dorea să vadă…Cei zece ani de efort fuseseră aproape zadarnici…Un vis s-a frânt, un vis s-a spulberat,

Când a intrat la balet a concurat cu nepoata profesoarei şi s-a dovedit a fi mai bună…La vârsta aceea nu putea înţelege ce este forţa invidiei.. Peste ani, Ioana s-a întrebat mereu  ce putuse avea comun  firea aceea ghimpoasă, cu sensibilitatea unui astfel de arte…

Probabil că, incapacitatea de a vedea necesitatea şi valoarea în propria-i viaţă a dus-o spre o hipermetropie a sufletului.

Pentru Ioana, baletul însemnase emoţii tulburătoare, calea spre viaţă, profunzime, maturitate, forţa motivatoare a vieţii însăşi.

Pentru profesoară, oare, ce însemnase?… s-a întrebat nu de puţine ori Ioana.   

Întâlnind-o pe stradă, la câteva zile de la acel incident, şi salutând-o nu i-a răspuns decât cu un zâmbet onctuos de fatuitate…Atunci a simţit, pentru prima dată, cum mirosul de măr din sufletul ei dispare…

Acel comportament, încălcarea celei mai elementare etici, era ceva greu de acceptat pentru un copil aflat la început de drum…

Soarta, viaţa i-a mai oferit astfel de scene …Şi chiar mai rău…

Anii au trecut, lăsând în urma lor brazda adâncă a paşilor lor…

Într-o zi Ioana a întâlnit un om. Un om ce a devenit un fel de secret al sufletului ei…

Bătaia de inimă, care a însoţit acel secret, a generat dorinţa uriaşă de a ierta şi de iubi pe toată lumea…

Sentimentele pentru el o făcură să-şi cunoască propriul ei suflet, în care descifra sensuri noi, tainice, mai adânci ca sevele pământului…Era a o briză adusă de mare, fără ca privirea să zărească ţărmul.

Era iubirea..

Îi admira osteneala mâinilor lui, casa, livada care, erau ferestre deschise spre florile de măr a sufletului ei….În fiecare copac, din livada lui, ea vedea o ucenicie a voinţei, o răbufnire a curajului, o dăruire  către pământul din care îşi trăgea puterea…

Poteci lungi, cu peluze străjuite de meri se pierdeau departe, fără a le putea cuprinde cu privirea…Rădăcinile adânci ale copacilor smulgeau pământului acea sevă, care se revărsa în ramurile ce se înălţau spre lumină, ca nişte emisari ai fiinţei lui…O putere neînţeleasă, pe care nu o vedea dar o simţea în adâncul fiinţei ei, a unit-o cu el şi i-a umplut sufletul dincolo de voinţă.

Emisarii aceia au trecut, lăsând în urmă apusurile rănite, nopţile albe, dimineţile cenuşii…

Amintiri frumoase îşi făceau drum fără milă prin trupul zbuciumat al Ioanei…Trecutul devenea  totuna cu frunzele de toamnă, pe care un val repede şi tulbure le aşeza la picioarele ei …

Casa bătrânească, bătută cu şiţă şi înnegrită de ploi, atinsă de mâna timpului, o privea acum străin, cu umerii obosiţi de atâtea încercări…

Grajdul, pătulul pentru fân nu mai exista…Livada răspândea în noapte o pace adâncă. Ferindu-se de tot ceea ce o putea atinge,

Ioana se simţi vinovată că tulbură cu supărările ei acea pace sfântă, care era dincolo de cunoaştere şi înţelegere…Liniştea pe care o simţea, dar din care se excludea pe ea, pentru că cei care o reprezenta nu mai existau, o învăluia uşor, cu singurătatea nopţii…

Măicuţa

 

 

Mănăstirile – lăcaşuri de rugăciune şi puritate spirituală – te cheamă să-ţi găseşti liniştea pierdută sau să-ţi aminteşti, când eşti fericit, că totul vine de la Dumnezeu.

Aşezate în zone picturale, peisajul ce-ţi îmbată privirea, aerul sănătos ce-ţi umple trupul, devin o osmoză perfectă cu rugăciunile măicuţelor  înălţate către ceruri, pentru ca Divinitatea să-şi reverse asupra omenirii harurile ei.

În popasul de la Agapia simţi toate acestea…

 
 

Uiţi de viaţa cotidiană, cu cerinţele, cu împlinirile şi neîmplinirile  ei. Trăieşti într-o altă lume, în care esenţa trăirii este religia. Ochii tăi caută mereu – dimineaţa şi seara – iar în zilele de sărbătoare şi la prânz , şirul de femei, care-au părăsit tot ce-i lumesc şi s-au unit cu Cristos.

Tresari – pasul lor e uşor, faţa lor e veselă, mersul grăbit. Pentru ele nu există minutul întârzierii, fiindcă dangătul clopotului ce anunţă utrenia sau vecernia face parte din fiinţa lor.

Iarna se luptă cu nămeţii, iar vara, cu vestimentaţia lor pe care n-o pot schimba nici când sunt zile toride.

Ele se luptă cu natura, cu ele însele, pentru a purta neîntinată dăruirea lor sacralităţii.

Din şirul de măicuţe se desprinde imaginea Ştefanei – cea care mi-a fost prietenă şi ocrotitoare şi care, dincolo de moarte va rămâne mereu în sufletul meu ca un prototip al luptei dintre omenesc şi sacru. O perioadă grea din viaţa ei mi-a confirmat ce-nseamnă puterea credinţei, a înţelegerii …şi a acceptării   

Nu mai ştiu exact când a început acel proces transformator în alchimia sufletului ei, obnubilaţia şi lupta interioară imperceptibilă pentru cei din jur, dar care în interior surpa, îşi făcea loc şi devora întreaga-i fiinţă.

Poate din ziua în care a aflat că mai are puţin de trăit…!

 

Din ziua aceea, teama a dus-o spre un tărâm dominat de durere şi singurătate.

Poate, din ziua aceea, suferinţa nu a mai putut fi înţeleasă cu ajutorul raţiunii …Mă gândesc acum cu strângere de inimă la toţi acei ani, la acele interminabile nopţi, când lacrimi fierbinţi udau perna ei, când boala săpa adânc în trupul  ostenit şi nu avea cu cine să discute, să-i ceară un sfat, sau să-i împărtăşească un gând.

Singură…

Trăind ceva diferit de felul de credinţă despre care învăţase …Dăruindu-i iubirea lui Dumnezeu şi-a clădit din ea un adăpost de pace, ce constituia o siguranţă în tot ceea ce făcea…Siguranţa aceea dispăruse …Acum teama o alunga din acel adăpost…

Legea dragostei era încălcată.

Crezul vieţii ei a fost dominat de ordine,  echilibru, şi corectitudine…Acum echilibrul se surpa,  iar acordul încheiat se clătina …

În tinereţe fusese o femeie puternică, robustă, gata să muncească de la ivirea zorilor până târziu în noapte…Pe chipul ei era mereu un surâs, care dădea farmec aparte trăsăturilor aspre…Purta o rochie de tafta neagră, care foşnea la cea mai mică mişcare, un sovon negru îi acoperea fruntea şi obrajii, iar ochii mari neliniştiţi,  răspândeau în jur o mare bunătate.

Maica Ştefania te întâmpina întotdeauna cu multă generozitate şi căldură  când îi treceai pragul casei.

Mergeam la prietena mea în fiecare vară, când zilele erau pline de căldura şi lumina soarelui…Doream revenirea în acele locuri, ca o pecetluire a unei iubiri pe care am trăit-o şi am admis-o în sufletul meu pentru totdeauna…Casa măicuţei Ştefania era un mic eden .. Camera ei era deosebită prin prezenţa busuiocului care domnea  tot timpul într-o vază albă  de pe masa rotundă din mijlocul camerei…Scaune de palisandru cu spătar înalt, înconjurau măsuţa.. În  colţul camerei, păstra o vitrină foarte veche, de generaţii întregi, care era plină de mici comori: iconiţe, cutiuţe cu smirnă şi tămâie…iar o candelă mică, aprinsă tot timpul, revărsa în jur o lumină blândă, ce învăluia camera într-o linişte şi pace duhovnicească adâncă.

 

Aveam obiceiul să stăm de vorbă în fiecare seară în balconul casei, să privim apusul de soare de la Agapia…Petunii multicolore ajungeau până la balconul nostru, învăluindu-ne în mireasma lor…

O putere ocultă, cu imnuri pastorale se revărsa noaptea şi transparenţa ei era aşa de uşoară, încât pătrundeai cu privirea sufletului şoaptele pline de modulaţii ale îngerilor ce străjuiau pădurea din spatele casei…

Nu mă gândeam la ceva anume, nu puteam să mă gândesc, mă contopeam cu natura şi mă înfioram odată cu faldurile pădurii, odată cu şipotul apei, cu razele curate ale lunii ce se revărsau în cascada de lumină peste Agapia, de parcă nu eram eu, eram toate acestea laolaltă.

Şi deodată, totul s-a schimbat …Nimic din ceea ce simţeam nu a mai avut o semnificaţie simplă… Zi de zi măicuţa Ştefania devenea o altă fiinţă…Ceva ce era inseparabil de boala ei … Ceea ce pierduse, risipind în obsesii şi stări anxioase, implacabile se risipi…

Analiza lucrurilor nu o putea duce prea departe, dar iubirea îi putea aduna sufletul la un loc…

Nu putea eluda destinul prin orbire sau inacceptare… Trăiri abisale, străine până atunci, au provocat prefaceri profunde, reevaluări radicale, nebănuite…Nevoită să privească în propria-i inimă, fără precepte teologice şi fără ochelari spirituali, a înţeles în cele din urmă că viaţa este o emulaţie, ce-şi trage seva din adâncurile fiinţei noastre, din iubire şi recunoştinţă…Când a înţeles asta s-a eliberat de temeri…

Acceptarea avea nevoie de linişte, de dragoste şi numai din interior putea primi asta…

Ornicul timpului rămas era pe  sfârşite …

În seara aceea maica Ştefania strângea în mână un buchet de vâzdoage…

 
 

Abundenţa trandafirilor risipiţi pretutindeni umplea grădina de o mireasmă ameţitoare…

Zâmbetul larg, luminos, dispăruse de pe faţa ei şi o pace plină de resemnare îi luase locul…

„-Viaţa ne risipeşte, ne amăgeşte cu multe năluci – începu ea cu o voce şoptită – şi povara grijilor face uneori să uităm ceea ce Dumnezeu aşteptă de le noi. Să nu uiţi niciodată că, numai în credinţă şi iubire putem fi împăcaţi, fericiţi…numai ele te pot ajuta să păstrezi curăţenia şi candoarea sufletului”….Cuvintele ei zburau în noapte, îmbrăţişând tăcerea şi liniştea sufletului şi am înţeles atunci că aştepta somnul în care să-şi poată odihni  gândurile grele. La ce bun să spun că nici o suferinţă nu poate să atingă deznădejdea?

 
Emilia Ţuţuianu
 
 

 

 
                                                     

Labirintul

 

La început, în fiinţa-mi de lut

s-a pitit tainic iubirea..

Şi-n rădăcinile adânci ale ei,

viaţa a luat forma aripilor albe

 Timpul, fără a-şi schimba măsura,

Ghemul Ariadnei l-a desfăcut,

încet, de la sine…  

Şi, din Cunoaştere, a izvorât

lumina înţelepciunii,

Din Adevăr s-a zămislit

lumina dragostei,

Contopindu-se cu materia

Şi atunci a izbucnit

flacăra  sufletului

 

Ca Persefona  am străbătut labirintul,

şi am simţit în ceafă, răsuflarea-i rece

Şi cu fiecare pas cutezat,  se deschidea

adânc, rana de sub pleoape..

                  

De secera lunii  am atârnat,

ispita „capitulării laşe”…

Şi-n inima mică, ca un fruct,

am adunat izvoare de cristale

Ce au săpat adânc, în suflet,

                  Cetatea Luminii!

 
 
 
 
 

                           Destin    

 

Păşesc, privind tot înainte,

Prin frunzele ce cad foşnind-

Crâmpei de vise ostenite,

Tresar sub pasu-mi obosit

 

Zadarnic ochii mei mai cată,

Prin vechiul Aladin ochean –

O razã limpede, curatã,

Pe care-o vreau…dar n-o mai am!

 

Stingher tu treci pe lângă mine,

Şi ierni aduci şi vânturi reci…

Oh !…te cunosc atât de bine,

Destin al meu, la cine pleci?

 
 


 

     Pioşenie

 

 

Motto: Ieşi-va duhul lor şi

se vor întoarce în pământ.

În ziua aceea vor pieri

toate gândurile lor.

(Ps.145,4)

 

Mă-ndrept spre casa bunicilor,

Dar ea mă primeşte pustie şi goală.

Mă-ntorc spre căminul părinţilor

       ca o pasăre care,

       după ce şi-a luat zborul,

       îşi caută cuibul plin de

       penele ce i-au căzut din aripi.

Mă-ntorc la fiinţa iubită,

       cu sufletul plin de dragoste,

       să-i spun c-a fost cu mine mereu!

Mă-ntorc, spre tot ce-a fost

       tristeţe şi bucurie…              

 

                        şi

 

Vreau să retrăiesc totul…

       pentru că timpul devine un hoţ

       al vârstelor şi fuge…fuge…fuge

 

              şi

 

Atunci, mă voi întoarce către

      pământul care mi-a dat fiinţa…

             „din pământ eşti

              şi în pământ vei  merge!”

 
 


 Secvenţe

De câte ori ninge cu flori de măr,

simt că trăiesc miracolul devenirii…

Le iau în palme, le sărut

dar ele se metamorfozează

În lacrimi, ce cad una câte una…

pentru a îmbrăţişa pământul

cu flacăra Iubirii


 Emilia Ţuţuianu

 

10 Feb
2012

CETATEA MAYA – George Anca

CETATEA MAYA

Bietul Parpangel cântă la masă
De lìbov, de vin și de jele,
Ș-apoi vede-o copilă frumoasă,
Și stă dus cu ochii cătră stele.
Florescu spune de țigani ș-alte

A lui Vlad tocmeli și fapte nalte. (Cântecul a III)

Pe gustul comanditarilor (printre ei, învăluită, poate islamic, şi copila frumoasă) din cetatea maya, himerică, soloul lui Parpangel atinge kama (ars amandi, amor, libov), soma (vinul), śoka (jelea). Jundandel se spiritualizase cu soma, urmaşul cântă vinul în ecou, sub imperiul lui Dionis, apropiat, indologic, de Shiva sau de fiul său Skanda (Somaskanda).

Florescul îl va întrerupe cu discursul, dacă nu chiar despre un rajarashi (rege înţelept, virtuos), despre Vlad-Vodă, opus invadatorilor Mohamet, Hamza, Katavolinos ş.cl. Coincidenţa opoziţiilor este statuată şi în tratatul sanscrit Arthashastra, comparat de Max Weber cu Principele lui Machiavelli. Kautilya pune artha (economia, politica) mai sus decât dharma (legea, credinţa, spiritualitatea) şi kama.
(Amor-Kama)

„Iubiți, o suflete muritoare,
Că libovul este legea-întie
A toatei ființe de supt soare!
Tot care nu sâmte libovie,
Mult defăimează legea firească
Și nu e vrednic să mai trăiască.

Tot ce sâmte, să mișcă, viază,
Tot ce-înverde, ce-înfloare și crește,
Cu poftă lină să-îmbrățoșază,
Cu dulce dor să leagă, să mește,
O! Amor! ție toată să-închină,
Toată ție jertfește jivină!

Însuș pe-astă lume trecătoare,
Din háos un sânt libov o scoasă,
Și dragoste, cu-întia lucoare,
Îi suflà în mădulările ghiețoase,
Așezând ca legea ei întie
Priința ș-armonia să fie!…

După-această lege nemutată,
Făptura toată merge, să ține;
În toate libov și dor s-arată:
Iubescu-să stelele-între sine,
Iubește-să ceriul cu pământul,
Iubescu-să mările cu vântul.

(Vin-soma)

„Vinule dulciu, tu roadă de raiu
De la Dumnezieu dată pe pământ,
A toate roduri de pe lume craiu!…
Laude ți-oi cânta, cum purure cânt,
Numa de beut cându-mi vine dor,
Tu să mi te-îmbii cu plinul urcior.

Tu ești mirul sânt, dintru toate-ales,
Ce viață dai, mângăind pre toți;
Fie fericit care te-au cules!…
A lui Dionis veniți, o preòți
Să-închinăm, să bem cu păharul plin,
Să trăiască toți cei care beu vin!

„ Dionis este la poeții elinești un zieu ce au aflat vița vinului, pe care latinii au chiemat Bahus. Poeticul chiamă pe preòții lui Dionis, adecă pre cei ce-l cinsteau ca să vie să beie vinul. Însă aici, prin metaforă s-au luat cuvântul Dionis și însemnează vinul.”

(Jele – soka)

Dar’ ian’ cântă-ne vruna de jele,
Carea ți-e mai dragă, Parpangele!”
*
Libovul Illenii cătră tine
Și dorul tău cătră dânsa,-Arghine!
*
Multe țări îmblai, dragă, pentru tine!
Dar’ acuma-mi văd cărarea curmată;
La locuri sosind puste și străine,
Nedejdea-mi pieri de-a te-afla vrodată.
Dar’ nice a-întoarce fără tine-acasă,
Libovul nestâns ș-inima mă lasă!…
*
Când iacă dedu supt poale de munte,
De-un groaznic omoiu c’un ochiu în frunte
*
„Foarte tu te-înșeli, tânăr ticăloase,
De-în arme te-încrezi și-întru mâna tare!
Că nici vărtute, nici arme tăioase
Pot să-ți aducă ție vro scăpare,
Deacă legii mele nu te vei supune,
Care eu acuș’ de-amărunt ț-oi spune.”

Tocma când fârșea ceste cuvinte,
Copila cu fața coperită
Ce-l făcusă de jele să cânte,
Doară vrând să-l aducă-în ispită,
Desvălindu-și obrazul s-arată,
Și iacă povestea lui curmată,
Căci alăuta-i căzu din mână
Și el stete ca fără sâmțire.
Iar’ întracea copila străină
Ieși din casă fără de-a știre
Ce s-au făcut. Toți să minunează
Și nu știu ce vor mai să crează.

Iar Parpangel venindu-ș’ în sine
Rapede să scoală… iasă-afară,
Caută,-întreabă prin odăi vecine,
Cearcă-în zădar și să-întoarce iară,
Mult apoi în sine să mâhnește
Că fata dorită nu găsește.

Oaspeții dintru toate aceste
Nu putea să gâcească nimică,
Numa că li să curmă poveste
Și rămasără fără músícă.
De-aci multă glumă și voroavă
Să-iscă de-a țiganilor ispravă.

„Nu să știe din ce pricină autoriul sau izvoditoriul Țiganiadei au băgat aici cântarea aceasta, care îi alcătuită întralt feliu de stihuri, care ies afară din măsura celoralalți, fiind cu un picior sau metru mai lungi. Cu adevărat altă pricină nu vede a fire, afară de că așa au aflat-o în orighinalul vechiu și n-au vrut să o prefacă, după celealalte vierșuri, mai vârtos socotind ș-aceasta, că nu este fârșită, ci numai începutul, precum să va vedea din cele ce urmează. M. P. /a) Am cercetat în tot feliu să pociu afla și ceailaltă parte a poveștii aceștii de obște iubite, dar nu am putut-o afla. De atâte ori pomenitul preînvățat Talalău a lăsat o însămnare la orighinal, că ceaialaltă parte cu totul s-au pierdut. Adauge ș-aceaia, cum că întiiul izvoditoriu au fost din cetatea Ceúgmei, care acum demult s-au năroit și să află năruitura și astezi lângă țărmurile Murășului în Ardeal, unde aproape este un sat ce să chiamă Cigmău, de bună samă nume prefăcut din cetatea Ceugma. Cine știe! doară săpând la năruiturile aceii cetăți s-ar afla manuscritul. P. Filologos. / Acest feliu de oameni cu un ochiu în frunte era urieș, și poeții cei de mult le zic ciclopi sau, de pe grecie, cìiclòpi. Trebuie a ști că povestea aceasta este făcută pe acele vremi când românii încă era păgâni și să închina la idoli; pentru aceasta vorbește de zâna Ermìnă, care au crescut pe Arghin. M. P. / Adecă când Parpangel cântând fârși acele cuvinte, atunci din oaspeți, copila cea ce-l făcusă să cânte de jele, dezvălindu-și fața să arătă cântărețului, iar’ el îndată curmă cântarea și povestea. M. P. / Adecă, după ce zărî Parpangel pe fată, îi căzu lauta din mână și el rămasă ca împietrit. Venindu-și apoi în fire și văzând că fata ieși din sală afară, de grabă mearsă după dânsa. Iar’ oaspeții neștiind ce va să zică aceste lucruri, să mira și le părea rău că cântărețul n-au fârșit povestea, și din această istorie apoi începură a vorbi de trebile țiganilor. M. P.”

(Vlad la divan – artha)

Văzând vodă-atâta țigănească
Gloată încolea și-încoace,
Ce nu vra c-alți să agonisească,
Ci numai a trândăvire-i place,
Socoti să-i armeze cum poate
Făgăduindu-le case ș-olate.

Ba le și dărui de moșie,
Prin milostivă domnească carte,
Toată-acea mândră periferie
Ce s-află-într-a țării ceștii parte:
De la Corbi păn la Cetatea Neagră,
Giur în pregiur epárhia-întreagă.

Zic unii că Vlad numai o șagă
Prin asta cugetă să facă,
Alții,-împrotivă, de samă bagă
Că vra pe țigănimea săracă
Să prăpădească, puind-o în poară
Cu turcii, ca mai curând să piară.

Eu mă țin de-această socotință
Cum că trebile lui Vlad oștene
Au poftit atare sârguință,
Ca să-armeze gloatele-eghiptene;
Știind că turcii acuș or să vină,
Iar’ el oaste are foarte puțină.

Prin țigani vru el să dobândească
Doao scòposuri: unul, să vază
Pe gloata murgă faraonească
Cum este la războiu de vitează,
Iar altul, ca să facă-arătare
Turcilor cumcă mai multe-oști are.

*

Fiindcă dumneta ești de-aice,
Nu-mi vei ținea de rău o-întrebare
Ce nimărui nu poate să strice:
Cine-i stăpânul ceștii curți rare?
Ca să-i dau căzută mulțămită
Pentru-ospătarea bună, cinstită…”

„Bucuros aș face, drag jupâne,
Îndestul dreptei cererii tale
(Zisă Florescul), dar și pe mine
Aicea mă abătu de la cale
O sângură tâmplare ciudată,
Nici am cunoscut curtea vodată.
*

Auzind de-a lui Vlad vitejie,
Dorit-am să fiu la cea nălțată
Bătălie ce are acum să fie
Și-a cării fârșit Evropa toată
Îl așteaptă cu nesuferință,
Poftind creștinilor biruință.
*
Aceste zicea Vlad la divan
Și la macar ce feliu de-adunare,
Adăugând că-oricine, fie țăran,
Târgoveț, boiariu mic sau mare,
Mestec va-avea cu limbă străină
Cu capu-ș’ va plăti șugubină.

Deci apreg pedepsea pe cei care
Asupra patrii făcea sfaturi
Ș-avea cu turcii vro mestecare,
Sau veri cu ce străine staturi,
Împărțându-le-averi și moșii
La-a patrii-apărători și fii.

Prin asta rând nou el introdusă:
Pe tâlhării și mari fapte rele,
Prin așezate pravile, pusă
Deosăbite pedepse și grele,
Din care cea mai obicinuită
Era țapa cu moarte cumplită.
*

Însă Vlad fiind cu bună pază,
Oaste-având bine-în arme deprinsă,
Gloate tâlhare cu mână vitează
De multe ori în fugă și prinsă;
Celor prinși dete moarte sureapă
Făcând să-i tragă de vii în țapă.

Acum la treizeci de mii aproape
De tâlhari păgâni el împărasă,
Nici lăsa pe nime să-i îngroape,
Ci vulturilor mâncare-aleasă
Și corbilor de jaf ca să fie,
Porunci spânzurați să rămâie.

„Nu trebuie a să mira că Florescul zice străinului „jupâne”, căci pe acele vremi această titulătură să da numa la boieri, nu ca în zioa de astăzi la fieștecare.
Acum să știe în ce chip au zidit Sătana curtea cea vrăjită, adecă în chip de neguțătoriu de preste mare, din Anadól. Simpliț.
De-acolea să cunoască că au fost lucru dievolesc, că au adunat acolo atâte copile tinere și cu tineri depreună ca să-i tragă la păcate. Păr. Desidemon.

a) Cine știe, doară toate acele fete au fost drăculeți în chip de om! P. Agnosie.
Vra să zică că el deprins fiind la oștenie, inima-l trage tot spre lucruri oștenești și la războiu.
Precum să vede, voinicul acest străin au fost din Ardeal, căci amintrele n’ar fi putut grăi romănește! Onoch.
Fiindcă Florescu, ca un om bine născut și cu bune învățături, nu vorbește așa de obște ca țiganii, ci cu un stil mai ales și rădicat, pentru aceasta am socotit să tălmăcesc gândurile lui pentru unii, care doară nu-l vor înțălege. Deci, zice el că acum cetatea lui Constantin (Țarigradul) căzusă în mânile turcilor, din pricina că grecii apucând împărăția romanilor, nu să îndeletnicea mai mult întru învățătura armelor, ca romanii, și să făcusă molateci și evlavioși, căutând mai vârtos a să sfădi prin săboare dese ce făcea și desputa pentru dogme neînțălese, decât a purta sabii și scute.
Între ceialalți creștini de la Apus (zice Florescul), să scornisă alte întrebări netrebnice, cu care ei îș bătea capul, precum: care s’au zidit mai întii, oul sau găina? Și oare sunt lăcuitori în lună? Și deacă sunt, oare Hs. și pentru ei au pătimit sau numai pentru pământeni? Cu aceste toate, Florescu nu vra alta numai s’arete deșărtăciunea sfezilor și învățăturii de pe acele vremi.
Domnul Romii. Spune mai încolo Florescu că papa șezând pe scaunul lui Petru (Chiefa ovreiește va să zică piatră, și de-acolea S. Petru care jidovește se chiema Chiefa, s-au numit lătinește Petru, de la piatră); de unde vei înțelege ce va să zică Florescu, adecă că întemeindu-să papa în domnia sa, precum îi plăcea așa afurisea și blagoslovea, bucurându-să întru sine că pe patriarhul de la Țarigrad, muftea (popa cel mai mare turcesc) alege și sultanul stăpânește pe greci care era protivnici înălțării păpești. Că nici ar fi fost papa vreo dinioară așa mare, să nu fie căzut Țarigradul. M. P.
Însă Florescu povestește la strofa următoare și alta și mai ciudată: zice că craii Apusului lăsând țările sale, mergea cu oști la Răsărit și să bătea cu păgânii pentru Ierusalim; și apoi adauge: pănă ce ei făcea întracest chip, turcii îndeletnicindu-să în politică și războaie, lua o țară după alaltă, precum e Țara Grecească, Bulgaria ș. al. M. P.
Florescul, după ce arată starea lucrurilor în Europa și între creștini, acum pogoară la Vlad Vodă și povestește istoria lui de când au stătut domn în Țara Muntenească.
Pentru acest Vlad Vodă îndoite sunt cronicele; unele îl scriu ca pe un tiran cumplit, iar’ altele ca pe un domn vrednic, însă apreg la pedepsire; precum să zice și de Stèfan, principu Moldávii, că au fost iute la mănie și vărsătoriu de sânge. M. P.
a) Fiindcă această izvoditură au scosu-o un țigan, lesne să poate cunoaște că priește lui Vlad Vodă, pe care socoti că au fost pretenul țiganilor, și doară din scrisorile țigănești au luat unii cari îl laudă. Chir Criticos.
b) Eu socotesc almintre, adecă prietenii lui au scris bine și neprietenii rău; dar să vedem ce au scris streinii, care n-au fost interesați. C. Adevărovici.
Câte s-au scris pănă aici pentru treaba lui Vlad cu sultanul Mahomet sunt toate adevărate și nu povești; să află și la scriptorii bizantinești, mai vârtos la Dúca Honiates; însă, să fie fost Catavolin copil de prăvătariu, n-am cetit. M. P.
Hamza, precum să știe de la istòrie, au fost pașă la Vidin pe acea vreme. M. P.
Adecă aceasta va să zică că nu vra să să închine nice odată. Onochef.

a) Premărețe sunt cuvintele aceste de cătră un domn muntenesc cătră puternicul Mahomet! C. Criticos.

b) Și totuș’ sunt adevărate; cu mult mai vârtos că tocma despre acest Vlad am cetit într-o cronică, că pe nește soli turcești au făcut să-ș’ ia învăliturile și cu capu gol să vie înaintea lui, iar’ ei răspunzând că legea lor oprește ca să-ș’ desgolească capul de învălitură, porunci vodă să le întărească mai bine cătră cap învăliturile și să le bată cu cuie de fierr, zicând vodă că întracest chip nu vor fi nici odinioară în primejdie de a-ș frânge legea. Care făcându-să după poruncă, toți muriră cu cumplită moarte. Deci, unu care făcu de aceste cu solii puternicului sultan Mahomet, cu mult mai lesne putea să răspunză într-acetchip lui Mahomet. M. P.”

George Anca

http://georgeanca.blogspot.com/

http://georgeanca.blogspot.com/

8 Feb
2012

În amintirea prea bunului Părinte Teoctist, Patriarhul tuturor românilor

“Un Inger nevazut l-a ridicat”

Marii duhovnici nu-si incheie lucrarea o data cu trecerea lor la cele vesnice. Petrecerea lor prin aceasta lume rodeste mult timp dupa ce ei nu mai sunt printre noi. Pilda vietii lor, cuvintele lor de invatatura, randuielile asezate de ei in viata nenumaratilor fii duhovnicesti, aluatul sanatos pus in framantare, nadejdea pe care au sadit-o in inimile oamenilor, toate aduc in lume si in sufletele oamenilor roadele Duhului: dragostea, bucuria, pacea, indelunga rabdare, bunatatea, facerea de bine, credinta, blandetea, infranarea, dupa cuvintele Sfantului Pavel (Gal. 5, 22-23).

Din ziua in care am ramas fara PASTOR, simt o sfarseala, o durere, ochii imi sunt plini de lacrimi. Am ascultat mesajele oamenilor, care au venit acum desi tarziu. Mi-am amintit ce s-a intamplat in vara anului 2004, pe 15 august la Sf. Manastire Techirghiol. Preafericirea Sa oficia Sfanta Liturghie, alaturi de un public numeros. Il priveam cu sfiala, inmarmurita de alura Sa, de acea mantie nevazuta pe care doar cei alesi stiu cum sa o poarte. Nu stiu ce s-a intamplat, dar, dorind sa se aseze, a cazut pe spate. Toti am incremenit. In spatele scaunului, nu exista nici un punct de sprijin, doar beton. “Un inger” nevazut l-a ridicat si a continuat oficierea slujbei ca si cum nimic nu s-a intamplat. Stiu doar ca la terminarea Sfintei Liturghii, am alergat si eu la fel ca altii doar sa-l ating. Nu mi-am dorit altceva. A fost ultima mea intalnire cu MARELE PATRIARH, intr-adevar SINGUR, DOAR CU DUMNEZU. “Diamantele” vazute in ochii Prea Fericitului vorbind de mama Domniei  Sale, sunt acum stele. UN MARE PASTOR CARE A RABDAT SI A TRUDIT PENTRU BINELE NEAMULUI ROMANESC!

Imi este foarte greu sa-mi privesc sufletul in aceste zile. Sunt cernita si eu, ca adevaratii iubitori de neam. Sunt trista! Aceeasi tristete care va macina si pe Dumneavoastra! Dar “Botosaneanul” nu a plecat! Va fi mereu printre noi, facand cinste poporului romanesc! Isi va gasi locul in numeroase scrieri si cei care l-au umilit poate vor regreta raul  facut. DUMNEZEU SA-L IERTE! O pilda pentru fiecare dintre noi! Sa stim sa iubim, sa iertam, sa ne putem pastra demnitatea si credinta strabuna.

Orele scrasnesc dureros. Un singur lucru regret. Ca nu-mi permite timpul si sanatatea sa fiu si eu acolo, la marea plecare a “PASTORULUI”.

Cu smerenie si cu umilinta sa cerem Lui Hristos: “Pomeneste-l, Doamne, pe Preafericitul PatriarhTeoctist in Imparatia Ta”. Sa luam aminte la cel ce a plecat dintre noi. Sa aprindem si noi o lumanare si sa-i iertam in gand pe cei care i-au amarat uneori firea sa duhovniceasca. Sa invatam sa “pretuim gesturile si sacrificiul” pe care le-a pus in slujba Neamului omenesc.

Am pierdut un mare Parinte. Dumnezeu sa-l odihneasca cu Dreptii in gradina Sa! Amin.

MARIANA GURZA

“Al cincilea patriarh” – volum colectiv, Editura Intermundus, 2007

Cuvânt și Iubire

Cuvânt și Iubire

„De aş grăi în limbile oamenilor şi ale îngerilor, iar dragoste nu am, făcutu-m-am aramă sunătoare şi chimval răsunător. Şi

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,,Dragostea îndelung rabdă; dragostea este binevoitoare, dragostea nu pizmuiește, nu se laudă, nu se trufește". (Corinteni 13,4)
 

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